Exhibit 6, Clarendon Laboratory Archive

Exhibit 6 - Simon helium liquifier

Simon liquifier

In 1933 Lindemann, believing Hitler's threats, persuaded four distinguished physicists to leave Nazi germany and come to the Clarendon Laboratory. They were Heinrich Kuhn, Nicholas Kurti, Kurt Mendelssohn and Franz Simon. Kurti, Mendelssohn and Simon introduced the subject of low temperature physics to the Lab. from which have sprung a number of research fields which use cryogenic techniques.
    Simon developed a liquifier for producing small quantities of liquid helium in a cryostat for individual experiments - the so-called "simple Simon" liquifier. The picture shows one of these liquifiers in sectioned form.

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