Seasonal Prediction of Tropical Cyclones over the North Atlantic and Western North Pacific
In this study, Tropical Cyclones (TC) over the Western North Pacific (WNP) and North Atlantic (NA) basins are analysed in seasonal forecasting models from five European modelling centres. Most models are able to capture the observed seasonal cycle of TC frequencies over both basins; however, large differences for numbers and spatial track densities are found. In agreement with previous studies, TC numbers are often underestimated, which is likely related to coarse model resolutions. Besides shortcomings in TC characteristics, significant positive skill (deterministic and probabilistic) in predicting TC numbers and accumulated cyclone energy is found over both basins. Whereas the predictions of TC numbers over the WNP basin are mostly unreliable, most seasonal forecast provide reliable predictions for the NA basin. Besides positive skill over the entire NA basin, all seasonal forecasting models are skillful in predicting the interannual TC variability over a region covering the Caribbean and North American coastline, suggesting that the models carry useful information, e.g. for adaptation and mitigation purposes ahead of the upcoming TC season. However, skill in all forecast models over a smaller region centred along the Asian coastline is smaller compared to their skill in the entire WNP basin.