Visualizing Macroscopic Inhomogeneities in Perovskite Solar Cells
ACS Energy Letters American Chemical Society (ACS) (2022) 2311-2322
Perovskite-organic tandem solar cells with indium oxide interconnect.
Nature 604:7905 (2022) 280-286
Abstract:Multijunction solar cells can overcome the fundamental efficiency limits of single-junction devices. The bandgap tunability of metal halide perovskite solar cells renders them attractive for multijunction architectures1. Combinations with silicon and copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS), as well as all-perovskite tandem cells, have been reported2-5. Meanwhile, narrow-gap non-fullerene acceptors have unlocked skyrocketing efficiencies for organic solar cells6,7. Organic and perovskite semiconductors are an attractive combination, sharing similar processing technologies. Currently, perovskite-organic tandems show subpar efficiencies and are limited by the low open-circuit voltage (Voc) of wide-gap perovskite cells8 and losses introduced by the interconnect between the subcells9,10. Here we demonstrate perovskite-organic tandem cells with an efficiency of 24.0 per cent (certified 23.1 per cent) and a high Voc of 2.15 volts. Optimized charge extraction layers afford perovskite subcells with an outstanding combination of high Voc and fill factor. The organic subcells provide a high external quantum efficiency in the near-infrared and, in contrast to paradigmatic concerns about limited photostability of non-fullerene cells11, show an outstanding operational stability if excitons are predominantly generated on the non-fullerene acceptor, which is the case in our tandems. The subcells are connected by an ultrathin (approximately 1.5 nanometres) metal-like indium oxide layer with unprecedented low optical/electrical losses. This work sets a milestone for perovskite-organic tandems, which outperform the best p-i-n perovskite single junctions12 and are on a par with perovskite-CIGS and all-perovskite multijunctions13.
Understanding and suppressing non-radiative losses in methylammonium-free wide-bandgap perovskite solar cells
Energy and Environmental Science Royal Society of Chemistry (2021)
Abstract:With power conversion efficiencies of perovskite-on-silicon and all-perovskite tandem solar cells increasing at rapid pace, wide bandgap (> 1.7 eV) metal-halide perovskites (MHPs) are becoming a major focus of academic and industrial photovoltaic research. Compared to their lower bandgap (< 1.6 eV) counterparts, these types of perovskites suffer from higher levels of non-radiative losses in both the bulk material and in device configurations, constraining their efficiencies far below their thermodynamic potential. In this work, we investigate the energy losses in methylammonium (MA) free high-Br-content widegap perovskites by using a combination of THz spectroscopy, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence, coupled with drift-diffusion simulations. The investigation of this system allows us to study charge-carrier recombination in these materials and devices in the absence of halide segregation due to the photostabilty of formamidinium-cesium based lead halide perovskites. We find that these perovskites are characterised by large non-radiative recombination losses in the bulk material and that the interfaces with transport layers in solar cell devices strongly limit their open-circuit voltage. In particular, we discover that the interface with the hole transport layer performs particularly poorly, in contrast to 1.6 eV bandgap MHPs which are generally limited by the interface with the electron-transport layer. To overcome these losses, we incorporate and investigate the recombination mechanisms present with perovskites treated with the ionic additive 1-butyl-1-methylpipiderinium tetrafluoroborate. We find that this additive not only improves the radiative efficiency of the bulk perovskite, but also reduces the non-radiative recombination at both the hole and electron transport layer interfaces of full photovoltaic devices. In addition to unravelling the beneficial effect of this specific treatment, we further optimise our solar cells by introducing an additional LiF interface treatment at the electron transport layer interface. Together these treatments enable MA-free 1.79 eV bandgap perovskite solar cells with open-circuit voltages of 1.22 V and power conversion efficiencies approaching 17 %, which is among the highest reported for this material system.
Large-Grain Double Cation Perovskites with 18 mu s Lifetime and High Luminescence Yield for Efficient Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells
ACS ENERGY LETTERS 6:3 (2021) 1045-1054
Nano-emitting Heterostructures Violate Optical Reciprocity and Enable Efficient Photoluminescence in Halide-Segregated Methylammonium-Free Wide Bandgap Perovskites
ACS ENERGY LETTERS 6:2 (2021) 419-428