Dimethylammonium: An A‐site Cation for Modifying CsPbI3
Solar RRL Wiley (2020)
Abstract:All‐inorganic perovskite materials are attractive alternatives to organic‐inorganic perovskites because of their potential for higher thermal stability. While CsPbI3 is compositionally stable under elevated temperatures, the cubic perovskite α‐phase is thermodynamically stable only at >330°C and the low‐temperature perovskite γ−phase is metastable and highly susceptible to non‐perovskite δ‐phase conversion in moisture. Many methods have been reported which show that incorporation of acid (aqueous HI) or “HPbI3” – recently shown to be dimethylammonium lead iodide (DMAPbI3) – lower the annealing temperature required to produce the black, perovskite phase of CsPbI3. The optical and crystallographic data presented here show that DMA can successfully incorporate as an A‐site cation to replace Cs in the CsPbI3 perovskite material. This describes the stabilization and lower phase transition temperature reported in the literature when HI or HPbI3 are used as precursors for CsPbI3. The Cs‐DMA alloy only forms a pure‐phase material up to ∽25% DMA; at higher concentrations the CsPbI3 and DMAPbI3 begin to phase segregate. These alloyed materials are more stable to moisture than neat CsPbI3, but do not represent a fully inorganic perovskite material.
Atomic layer deposited electron transport Layers in efficient organometallic halide perovskite devices
MRS Advances Cambridge University Press 3:51 (2018) 3075-3084
Abstract:Amorphous TiO2 and SnO2 electron transport layers (ETLs) were deposited by low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD). Surface morphology and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicate uniform and pinhole free coverage of these ALD hole blocking layers. Both mesoporous and planar perovskite solar cells were fabricated based on these thin films with aperture areas of 1.04 cm2 for TiO2 and 0.09 cm2 and 0.70 cm2 for SnO2. The resulting cell performance of 18.3 % power conversion efficiency (PCE) using planar SnO2 on 0.09 cm2 and 15.3 % PCE using mesoporous TiO2 on 1.04 cm2 active areas are discussed in conjunction with the significance of growth parameters and ETL composition.
Understanding and suppressing non-radiative losses in methylammonium-free wide-bandgap perovskite solar cells
Energy and Environmental Science Royal Society of Chemistry (2021)
Abstract:With power conversion efficiencies of perovskite-on-silicon and all-perovskite tandem solar cells increasing at rapid pace, wide bandgap (> 1.7 eV) metal-halide perovskites (MHPs) are becoming a major focus of academic and industrial photovoltaic research. Compared to their lower bandgap (< 1.6 eV) counterparts, these types of perovskites suffer from higher levels of non-radiative losses in both the bulk material and in device configurations, constraining their efficiencies far below their thermodynamic potential. In this work, we investigate the energy losses in methylammonium (MA) free high-Br-content widegap perovskites by using a combination of THz spectroscopy, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence, coupled with drift-diffusion simulations. The investigation of this system allows us to study charge-carrier recombination in these materials and devices in the absence of halide segregation due to the photostabilty of formamidinium-cesium based lead halide perovskites. We find that these perovskites are characterised by large non-radiative recombination losses in the bulk material and that the interfaces with transport layers in solar cell devices strongly limit their open-circuit voltage. In particular, we discover that the interface with the hole transport layer performs particularly poorly, in contrast to 1.6 eV bandgap MHPs which are generally limited by the interface with the electron-transport layer. To overcome these losses, we incorporate and investigate the recombination mechanisms present with perovskites treated with the ionic additive 1-butyl-1-methylpipiderinium tetrafluoroborate. We find that this additive not only improves the radiative efficiency of the bulk perovskite, but also reduces the non-radiative recombination at both the hole and electron transport layer interfaces of full photovoltaic devices. In addition to unravelling the beneficial effect of this specific treatment, we further optimise our solar cells by introducing an additional LiF interface treatment at the electron transport layer interface. Together these treatments enable MA-free 1.79 eV bandgap perovskite solar cells with open-circuit voltages of 1.22 V and power conversion efficiencies approaching 17 %, which is among the highest reported for this material system.
Hall-effect Mobility for a Selection of Natural and Synthetic 2D Semiconductor Crystals
2017 JOINT INTERNATIONAL EUROSOI WORKSHOP AND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ULTIMATE INTEGRATION ON SILICON (EUROSOI-ULIS 2017) (2017) 27-30
Progression towards high efficiency perovskite solar cells via optimisation of the front electrode and blocking layer
JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY C 4:47 (2016) 11269-11277