Infrared radiometer for the Pioneer Venus orbiter. 1: Instrument description
Applied Optics 18:23 (1979) 3893-3900
Abstract:An IR remote sensing instrument, similar in principle to some of those on terrestrial meteorological satellites, was flown to Venus on board the Pioneer Venus orbiter. Observations of the atmosphere were made from 5 December 1978 until 14 February 1979, during seventy-two orbits of the planet. The optical techniques employed and the design and implementation of the instrument are described. © 1979 Optical Society of America.
Polar clearing in the Venus clouds observed from the Pioneer Orbiter 
Nature 279:5714 (1979) 613-614
Abstract:PIONEER Venus 1 was put into a 24-h orbit around the planet on 4 December 1978. Since then, it has made remote sensing observations of the clouds and the overlying atmosphere at IR, visible and UV wavelengths. The IR instrument includes a channel at a wavelength of 11.5 m, which is used to measure the effective temperature of the cloud tops. Carbon dioxide, and all of the known constituents of the gaseous atmosphere, are highly transparent at this wavelength. Earth-based telescopic observations at similar wavelengths have generally shown fairly uniform temperatures of the order of 240 K across the face of Venus. The accepted interpretation has been that the cloud cover on Venus not only covers the whole planet, but is also extremely uniform. The early Pioneer observations confirmed this general picture, for the equatorial and mid-latitudes which comprise most of the surface area of the planet . Interesting and meteorologically important structure with diurnal, seasonal and random components is found in the Pioneer measurements, as it was in earlier ground-based and spacecraft observations, but this structure has an amplitude of 10 K or less . However, these subtle contrasts which dominate thermal maps of lower latitudes change to dramatic structure near the pole. Even the Earth-based observers, who must view the polar regions on Venus at very oblique angles, have reported cold bands surrounding one or other of the poles at various times and occasional polar 'hot spots' . The Pioneer orbit passes almost directly over the pole (inclination = 105°) and so provides the first good views of this interesting region. The IR instrument was operated only in its low spatial resolution mode for the first part of the mission. Results from those observations showed a wave-shaped collar of high, cold cloud surrounding the north pole, with warmer cloud temperatures polewards. Close to the pole itself, the observed temperature is the highest anywhere on the planet, not only at the cloud top but also in the overlying atmosphere . We report here the first high data rate, high spatial resolution observations of the polar region. These were obtained on the tenth orbit of Venus on 15 December 1978. © 1979 Nature Publishing Group. 1-3 4 1-6 2 1 4 4
Pioneer venus infrared radiometer: Design, implementation and preliminary results
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 183 (1979) 292-298
Abstract:The multichannel infrared radiometer on Pioneer Venus Orbiter is similar in concept to Earth weather satellite instruments. Its main function is to measure the thermal emission from the atmosphere at seven pressure levels above the Venus clouds, allowing a determination of the vertical temperature structure. In addition to these temperature sounding channels there are two channels operating in the visible and near infrared to study the structure of the upper clouds, and a far infrared channel sensitive to water vapor in and above the clouds. The instrument can operate in four distinct modes including a calibration sequence. By utilizing the spinning action of the spacecraft and the relatively short integration times (200 msec in global mode and 30 msec in local mode) a substantial portion of the planet can be mapped within a 90 minute data taking period centered about periapsis time. During the course of the mission to date, many thousands of temperature profiles have been retrieved covering a latitude range from the pole to the equator. These profiles, coupled with extensive mapping of the structure of the cloud tops over a sufficiently long time span, will produce considerable insight into the dynamical processes of the upper atmosphere. © 1979 SPIE.
Phosphine absorption in the 5-μm window of Jupiter
Icarus 40:2 (1979) 189-192
Abstract:Since the original suggestion by Gillett et al. (1969) it has generally been assumed that the region of partial transparency near 5 μm in Jupiter's atmosphere (the 5-μm window) is bounded by the v NH at 6.1 μm and the v CH band at 3.3 μm. New measurements of Jupiter and of laboratory phosphine (PH ) samples show that PH is a significant contributor to the continuum opacity in the window and in fact defines its short-wavelength limit. This has important implications for the use of 5-mu;m observations as a means to probe the deep atmospheric structure of Jupiter. The abundance of PH which results from a comparison of Jovian and laboratory spectra is about 3 to 5 cm-am. This is five to eight times less than that found by Larson et al. [Astrophys. J. (1977) 211, 972-979] in the same spectral region, but is in good agreement with the result of Tokunaga et al. [Astrophys. J. (1979) 232, 603-615] from 10-μm observations. © 1979. 4 3 3 4 3 3 3
Short-term cyclic variations and diurnal variations of the Venus upper atmosphere
Science 205:4401 (1979) 62-64