Learning the exchange-correlation functional from nature with fully differentiable density functional theory
Physical Review Letters American Physical Society 127 (2021) 126403
Abstract:Improving the predictive capability of molecular properties in ab initio simulations is essential for advanced material discovery. Despite recent progress making use of machine learning, utilizing deep neural networks to improve quantum chemistry modeling remains severely limited by the scarcity and heterogeneity of appropriate experimental data. Here we show how training a neural network to replace the exchange-correlation functional within a fully differentiable three-dimensional Kohn-Sham density functional theory framework can greatly improve simulation accuracy. Using only eight experimental data points on diatomic molecules, our trained exchange-correlation networks enable improved prediction accuracy of atomization energies across a collection of 104 molecules containing new bonds, and atoms, that are not present in the training dataset.
Excited-state potentials for modelling dense plasmas from first principles
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion IOP Publishing (2021)
Abstract:The modelling of dense plasmas using finite-temperature density functional theory has proven very successful in determining transport properties and the equation of state of systems where quantum many-body effects and correlations play a key role in their structure. Here we show how excited-state projector augmented-wave potentials can be used to extend these calculations to explicitly model core-hole states, allowing for the calculation of the electronic structure of a range of integer charge configurations embedded in a dense plasma environment. Our excited-state potentials show good agreement with all-electron calculations at finite-temperatures, motivating their use as an efficient approach in modelling from first principles both the structure of strongly-coupled non-equilibrium plasmas and their interaction with intense X-rays.
X-ray spectroscopic studies of a solid-density germanium plasma created by a free electron laser
Applied Sciences MDPI 10:22 (2020) 8153
Abstract:The generation of solid-density plasmas in a controlled manner using an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) has opened up the possibility of diagnosing the atomic properties of hot, strongly coupled systems in novel ways. Previous work has concentrated on K-shell emission spectroscopy of low Z (<= 14) elements. Here, we extend these studies to the mid-Z(=32) element Germanium, where the XFEL creates copious L-shell holes, and the plasma conditions are interrogated by recording of the associated L-shell X-ray emission spectra. Given the desirability of generating as uniform a plasma as possible, we present here a study of the effects of the FEL photon energy on the temperatures and electron densities created, and their uniformity in the FEL beam propagation direction. We show that good uniformity can be achieved by tuning the photon energy of the XFEL such that it does not overlap significantly with L-shell to M-shell bound-bound transitions, and lies below the L-edges of the ions formed during the heating process. Reasonable agreement between experiment and simulations is found for the emitted X-ray spectra, demonstrating that for these higher Z elements, the selection of appropriate XFEL parameters is important for achieving uniformity in the plasma conditions.
Mapping the electronic structure of warm dense nickel via resonant inelastic x-ray scattering
Physical Review Letters American Physical Society 125 (2020) 195001
Abstract:The development of bright free-electron lasers (FEL) has revolutionised our ability to create and study matter in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Current diagnostic techniques have been successful in yielding information on fundamental thermodynamic plasma properties, but provide only limited or indirect information on the detailed quantum structure of these systems, and on how it is affected by ionization dynamics. Here we show how the valence electronic structure of soliddensity nickel, heated to temperatures of around 10 of eV on femtosecond timescales, can be probed by single-shot resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the Linac Coherent Light Source FEL. The RIXS spectrum provides a wealth of information on the HED system that goes well beyond what can be extracted from x-ray absorption or emission spectroscopy alone, and is particularly well-suited to time-resolved studies of electronic-structure dynamics.
Probing the electronic structure of warm dense nickel via resonant inelastic x-ray scattering
Physical Review Letters American Physical Society 125:19 (2020) 195001