Cerebral subcortical small vessel disease in subjects with pathologically confirmed Alzheimer disease: a clinicopathologic study in the Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Ageing (OPTIMA).
Alzheimer disease and associated disorders 28:1 (2014) 30-35
Abstract:The understanding of how cerebrovascular disease (CVD) contributes to dementia is hampered by a lack of agreed and validated pathologic methods to accord weight to the contribution of different aspects of CVD to dementia. A previous study from the Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Ageing (OPTIMA) validated a scheme for assessing the contribution of subcortical small vessel disease (SVD) toward dementia in the elderly by showing a significant inverse relationship between the severity of SVD and cognition in subjects without any other dementia pathology using this method. In the present paper, the method has been used to assess severity of SVD in 161 cases of neuropathologically confirmed Alzheimer disease. The results showed there was no relationship between the SVD score and cognitive scores acquired in the last 2 years of life. SVD scores were significantly related to age (P<0.0017) and were slightly but significantly higher in females than males (P<0.049). SVD scores were not related to blood pressure at entry to OPTIMA and were significantly lower when compared with the cohort of OPTIMA cases with only CVD (mean 5.06 ± 1.85 vs. 5.9 ± 2.67; P<0.0065). We conclude that when Alzheimer disease pathology is present in elderly subjects, it overwhelms the modest contribution that SVD makes to cognitive impairment.
Intact cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the Alzheimer's disease cortex.
Neurochemistry international 57:8 (2010) 985-989
Abstract:The cannabinoid CB1 receptor has gained much attention as a potential pharmacotherapeutic target in various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the relation of CB1 receptors to cognitive function in AD is at present unclear. In this study, postmortem brain tissues from a cohort of prospectively assessed, neuropathologically confirmed AD patients and aged controls were used to measure CB1 receptors by immunoblotting, and a subset of subjects also had [(3)H]SR141716A binding. Correlational analyses were then performed for the neurochemical and cognitive data. We found that CB1 receptor levels in were unchanged AD in the brain regions assessed (frontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, caudate nucleus). Within the AD group, frontal cortical CB1 immunoreactivity correlated with cognitive scores assessed within a year of death. Our study suggests that CB1 receptors are intact in AD and may play a role in preserving cognitive function. Therefore, CB1 receptors should be further assessed as a potential therapeutic target in AD.
Homocysteine-lowering by B vitamins slows the rate of accelerated brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial.
PloS one 5:9 (2010) e12244