A low [CII]/[NII] ratio in the center of a massive galaxy at z=3.7: evidence for a transition to quiescence at high redshift
Accretion and star formation in 'radio-quiet' quasars
Abstract:© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of International Astronomical Union. Radio observations allow us to identify a wide range of active galactic nuclei (AGN), which play a significant role in the evolution of galaxies. Amongst AGN at low radio-luminosities is the 'radio-quiet' quasar (RQQ) population, but how they contribute to the total radio emission is under debate, with previous studies arguing that it is predominantly through star formation. In this talk, SVW summarised the results of recent papers on RQQs, including the use of far-infrared data to disentangle the radio emission from the AGN and that from star formation. This provides evidence that black-hole accretion, instead, dominates the radio emission in RQQs. In addition, we find that this accretion-related emission is correlated with the optical luminosity of the quasar, whilst a weaker luminosity-dependence is evident for the radio emission connected with star formation. What remains unclear is the process by which this accretion-related emission is produced. Understanding this for RQQs will then allow us to investigate how this type of AGN influences its surroundings. Such studies have important implications for modelling AGN feedback, and for determining the accretion and star-formation histories of the Universe.
The rest-frame UV luminosity function at z≃4 : a significant contribution of AGN to the bright-end of the galaxy population
Abstract:We measure the rest-frame UV luminosity function (LF) at z ∼ 4 self-consistently over a wide range in absolute magnitude (−27 . MUV . −20). The LF is measured with 46,904 sources selected using a photometric redshift approach over ∼ 6 deg2 of the combined COSMOS and XMM-LSS fields. We simultaneously fit for both AGN and galaxy LFs using a combination of Schechter or Double Power Law (DPL) functions alongside a single power law for the faint-end slope of the AGN LF. We find a lack of evolution in the shape of the bright-end of the LBG component when compared to other studies at z ' 5 and evolutionary recipes for the UV LF. Regardless of whether the LBG LF is fit with a Schechter function or DPL, AGN are found to dominate at MUV < −23.5. We measure a steep faint-end slope of the AGN LF with αAGN = −2.09+0.35 −0.38 (−1.66+0.29 −0.58) when fit alongside a Schechter function (DPL) for the galaxies. Our results suggest that if AGN are morphologically selected it results in a bias to lower number densities. Only by considering the full galaxy population over the transition region from AGN to LBG domination can an accurate measurement of the total LF be attained.
Molecular gas inflows and outflows in ultraluminous infrared galaxies at z similar to 0.2 and one QSO at z=6.1
Aims: Our aim is to search for and characterize inflows and outflows of molecular gas in four ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; LIR > 1012L⊙) at z ∼ 0.2−0.3 and one distant quasi-stellar object (QSO) at z = 6.13.
Methods: We used Herschel/PACS and ALMA Band 7 observations of the hydroxyl molecule (OH) line at rest-frame wavelength 119 μm, which in absorption can provide unambiguous evidence of inflows or outflows of molecular gas in nuclear regions of galaxies. Our study contributes to doubling the number of OH 119 μm observations of luminous systems at z ∼ 0.2−0.3, and pushes the search for molecular outflows based on the OH 119 μm transition to z ∼ 6.
Results: We detect OH 119 μm high-velocity absorption wings in three of the four ULIRGs. In two cases, IRAS F20036−1547 and IRAS F13352+6402, the blueshifted absorption profiles indicate the presence of powerful and fast (∼200−500 km s−1) molecular gas outflows. Consistent with an inside-out quenching scenario, these outflows are depleting the central reservoir of star-forming molecular gas at a rate similar to that of intense star formation activity. For the starburst-dominated system IRAS 10091+4704, we detect an inverted P Cygni profile that is unique among ULIRGs and indicates the presence of a fast (∼400 km s−1) inflow of molecular gas at a rate of ∼100 M⊙ yr−1 towards the central region. Finally, we tentatively detect (∼3σ) the OH 119 μm doublet in absorption in the z = 6.13 QSO ULAS J131911+095051. The OH 119 μm feature is blueshifted with a median velocity that suggests the presence of a molecular outflow, although characterized by a modest molecular mass loss rate of ∼200 M⊙ yr−1. This value is comparable to the small mass outflow rates found in the stacking of the [C II] spectra of other z ∼ 6 QSOs and suggests that ejective feedback in this phase of the evolution of ULAS J131911+095051 has subsided.