Nano-crater morphology in hybrid electron-collecting buffer layers for high efficiency polymer:nonfullerene solar cells with enhanced stability.
Nanoscale horizons 4:2 (2019) 464-471
Abstract:Organic solar cells based on solution processes have strong advantages over conventional silicon solar cells due to the possible low-cost manufacturing of flexible large-area solar modules at low temperatures. However, the benefit of the low temperature process is diminished by a thermal annealing step at high temperatures (≥200 °C), which cannot be practically applied for typical plastic film substrates with a glass transition temperature lower than 200 °C, for inorganic charge-collecting buffer layers such as zinc oxide (ZnO) in high efficiency inverted-type organic solar cells. Here we demonstrate that novel hybrid electron-collecting buffer layers with a particular nano-crater morphology, which are prepared by a low-temperature (150 °C) thermal annealing process of ZnO precursor films containing poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOz), can deliver a high efficiency (12.35%) similar to the pristine ZnO layers prepared by the conventional high-temperature process (200 °C) for inverted-type polymer:nonfullerene solar cells. The nano-crater morphology was found to greatly enhance the stability of solar cells due to improved adhesion between the active layers and ZnO:PEOz hybrid buffer layers.
Fully solution‐processed photonic structures from inorganic/organic molecular hybrid materials and commodity polymers
Advanced Functional Materials Wiley 29:21 (2019) 1808152
Abstract:Managing the interference effects from thin (multi‐)layers allows for the control of the optical transmittance/reflectance of widely used and technologically significant structures such as antireflection coatings (ARCs) and distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). These rely on the destructive/constructive interference between incident, reflected, and transmitted radiation. While known for over a century and having been extremely well investigated, the emergence of printable and large‐area electronics brings a new emphasis: the development of materials capable of transferring well‐established ideas to a solution‐based production. Here, demonstrated is the solution‐fabrication of ARCs and DBRs utilizing alternating layers of commodity plastics and recently developed organic/inorganic hybrid materials comprised of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAl), cross‐linked with titanium oxide hydrates. Dip‐coated ARCs exhibit an 88% reduction in reflectance across the visible compared to uncoated glass, and fully solution‐coated DBRs provide a reflection of >99% across a 100 nm spectral band in the visible region. Detailed comparisons with transfermatrix methods (TMM) highlight their excellent optical quality including extremely low optical losses. Beneficially, when exposed to elevated temperatures, the hybrid material can display a notable, reproducible, and irreversible change in refractive index and film thickness while maintaining excellent optical performance allowing postdeposition tuning, e.g., for thermo‐responsive applications, including security features and product‐storage environment monitoring.
Large-area plastic nanogap electronics enabled by adhesion lithography
npj Flexible Electronics 2:1 (2018)
Conformational control of exciton-polariton physics in metal-poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-metal cavities
Physical Review B American Physical Society 98:19 (2018) 195306
Abstract:Control is exerted over the exciton-polariton physics in metal-poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-metal microcavities via conformational changes to the polymer backbone. Using thin-film samples containing increasing fractions of β -phase chain segments, a systematic study is reported for the mode characteristics and resulting light emission properties of cavities containing two distinct exciton subpopulations within the same semiconductor. Ultrastrong coupling for disordered glassy-phase excitons is observed from angle-resolved reflectivity measurements, with Rabi splitting energies in excess of 1.05 eV (more than 30 % of the exciton transition energy) for both TE- and TM-polarized light. A splitting of the lower polariton branch is then induced via introduction of β -phase excitons and increases with their growing fraction. In all cases, the photoluminescence emanates from the lowermost polariton branch, allowing conformational control to be exerted over the emission energy and its angular variation. Dispersion-free cavities with highly saturated blue-violet emission are thus enabled. Experimental results are discussed in terms of the full Hopfield Hamiltonian generalized to the case of two exciton oscillators. The importance of taking account of the molecular characteristics of the semiconductor for an accurate description of its strong coupling behavior is directly considered, in specific relation to the role of the vibronic structure.
Ultrastable supramolecular self-encapsulated wide-bandgap conjugated polymers for large-area and flexible electroluminescent devices
Advanced Materials Wiley 31:1 (2018) 1804811