Predicting the observability of population III stars with ELT-HARMONI via the helium 1640 Å emission line
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 501:4 (2021) 5517-5537
Abstract:Population III (Pop. III) stars, as of yet, have not been detected, however as we move into the era of extremely large telescopes this is likely to change. One likely tracer for Pop. III stars is the He IIλ1640 emission line, which will be detectable by the HARMONI spectrograph on the European Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) over a broad range of redshifts (2 ≤ z ≤ 14). By post-processing galaxies from the cosmological, AMR-hydrodynamical simulation NEWHORIZON with theoretical spectral energy distributions (SED) for Pop. III stars and radiative transfer (i.e. the Yggdrasil Models and CLOUDY look-up tables, respectively) we are able to compute the flux of He IIλ1640 for individual galaxies. From mock 10 h observations of these galaxies we show that HARMONI will be able to detect Pop. III stars in galaxies up to z ∼ 10 provided Pop. III stars have a top heavy initial mass function (IMF). Furthermore, we find that should Pop. III stars instead have an IMF similar to those of the Pop. I stars, the He IIλ1640 line would only be observable for galaxies with Pop. III stellar masses in excess of 107M⊙, average stellar age <1Myr at z = 4. Finally, we are able to determine the minimal intrinsic flux required for HARMONI to detect Pop. III stars in a galaxy up to z = 10.
Dual effects of ram pressure on star formation in multiphase disk galaxies with strong stellar feedback
Astrophysical Journal IOP Science 905:1 (2020) 31
Abstract:We investigate the impact of ram pressure stripping due to the intracluster medium (ICM) on star-forming disk galaxies with a multiphase interstellar medium maintained by strong stellar feedback. We carry out radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of an isolated disk galaxy embedded in a 1011 M ⊙ dark matter halo with various ICM winds mimicking the cluster outskirts (moderate) and the central environment (strong). We find that both star formation quenching and triggering occur in ram pressure–stripped galaxies, depending on the strength of the winds. H i and H2 in the outer galactic disk are significantly stripped in the presence of moderate winds, whereas turbulent pressure provides support against ram pressure in the central region, where star formation is active. Moderate ICM winds facilitate gas collapse, increasing the total star formation rates by ~40% when the wind is oriented face-on or by ~80% when it is edge-on. In contrast, strong winds rapidly blow away neutral and molecular hydrogen gas from the galaxy, suppressing star formation by a factor of 2 within ~200 Myr. Dense gas clumps with n H gsim 10 M ⊙ pc−2 are easily identified in extraplanar regions, but no significant young stellar populations are found in such clumps. In our attempts to enhance radiative cooling by adopting a colder ICM of T = 106 K, only a few additional stars are formed in the tail region, even if the amount of newly cooled gas increases by an order of magnitude.
New methods for identifying Lyman continuum leakers and reionization-epoch analogues
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 498:1 (2020) 164-180
Abstract:Identifying low-redshift galaxies that emit Lyman continuum radiation (LyC leakers) is one of the primary, indirect methods of studying galaxy formation in the epoch of reionization. However, not only has it proved challenging to identify such systems, it also remains uncertain whether the low-redshift LyC leakers are truly ‘analogues’ of the sources that reionized the Universe. Here, we use high-resolution cosmological radiation hydrodynamics simulations to examine whether simulated galaxies in the epoch of reionization share similar emission line properties to observed LyC leakers at z ∼ 3 and z ∼ 0. We find that the simulated galaxies with high LyC escape fractions (fesc) often exhibit high O32 and populate the same regions of the R23–O32 plane as z ∼ 3 LyC leakers. However, we show that viewing angle, metallicity, and ionization parameter can all impact where a galaxy resides on the O32–fesc plane. Based on emission line diagnostics and how they correlate with fesc, lower metallicity LyC leakers at z ∼ 3 appear to be good analogues of reionization-era galaxies. In contrast, local [S II]-deficient galaxies do not overlap with the simulated high-redshift LyC leakers on the S II Baldwin–Phillips–Terlevich (BPT) diagram; however, this diagnostic may still be useful for identifying leakers. We use our simulated galaxies to develop multiple new diagnostics to identify LyC leakers using infrared and nebular emission lines. We show that our model using only [C II]158 μm and [O III]88 μm can identify potential leakers from non-leakers from the local Dwarf Galaxy Survey. Finally, we apply this diagnostic to known high-redshift galaxies and find that MACS 1149_JD1 at z = 9.1 is the most likely galaxy to be actively contributing to the reionization of the Universe.
How primordial magnetic fields shrink galaxies
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 495:4 (2020) 4475-4495
Abstract:As one of the prime contributors to the interstellar medium energy budget, magnetic fields naturally play a part in shaping the evolution of galaxies. Galactic magnetic fields can originate from strong primordial magnetic fields provided these latter remain below current observational upper limits. To understand how such magnetic fields would affect the global morphological and dynamical properties of galaxies, we use a suite of high-resolution constrained transport magnetohydrodynamic cosmological zoom simulations where we vary the initial magnetic field strength and configuration along with the prescription for stellar feedback. We find that strong primordial magnetic fields delay the onset of star formation and drain the rotational support of the galaxy, diminishing the radial size of the galactic disc and driving a higher amount of gas towards the centre. This is also reflected in mock UVJ observations by an increase in the light profile concentration of the galaxy. We explore the possible mechanisms behind such a reduction in angular momentum, focusing on magnetic braking. Finally, noticing that the effects of primordial magnetic fields are amplified in the presence of stellar feedback, we briefly discuss whether the changes we measure would also be expected for galactic magnetic fields of non-primordial origin.
Reionization history constraints from neural network based predictions of high-redshift quasar continua
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 493:3 (2020) 4256-4275