Kinematics of slip-induced rotation for uniaxial shock or ramp compression

Journal of Applied Physics AIP Publishing 129:8 (2021) 085109

Authors:

Patrick Heighway, Justin Wark

Abstract:

When a metallic specimen is plastically deformed, its underlying crystal structure must often rotate in order to comply with its macroscopic boundary conditions. There is growing interest within the dynamic compression community in exploiting x-ray diffraction measurements of lattice rotation to infer which combinations of plasticity mechanisms are operative in uniaxially shock- or ramp-compressed crystals, thus informing materials science at the greatest extremes of pressure and strain rate. However, it is not widely appreciated that several of the existing models linking rotation to slip activity are fundamentally inapplicable to a planar compression scenario. We present molecular dynamics simulations of single crystals suffering true uniaxial strain, and show that the Schmid and Taylor analyses used in traditional materials science fail to predict the ensuing lattice rotation. We propose a simple alternative framework based on the elastoplastic decomposition that successfully recovers the observed rotation for these single crystals, and can further be used to identify the operative slip systems and the amount of activity upon them in the idealized cases of single and double slip.

Metastability of diamond ramp-compressed to 2TPa

Nature Nature 589:2021 (2021) 532-535

Authors:

David McGonegle, Patrick Heighway, Justin Wark

Abstract:

Carbon is the fourth-most prevalent element in the Universe and essential for all known life. In the elemental form it is found in multiple allotropes, including graphite, diamond and fullerenes, and it has long been predicted that even more structures can exist at pressures greater than those at Earth’s core1,2,3. Several phases have been predicted to exist in the multi-terapascal regime, which is important for accurate modelling of the interiors of carbon-rich exoplanets4,5. By compressing solid carbon to 2 terapascals (20 million atmospheres; more than five times the pressure at Earth’s core) using ramp-shaped laser pulses and simultaneously measuring nanosecond-duration time-resolved X-ray diffraction, we found that solid carbon retains the diamond structure far beyond its regime of predicted stability. The results confirm predictions that the strength of the tetrahedral molecular orbital bonds in diamond persists under enormous pressure, resulting in large energy barriers that hinder conversion to more-stable high-pressure allotropes1,2, just as graphite formation from metastable diamond is kinetically hindered at atmospheric pressure. This work nearly doubles the highest pressure at which X-ray diffraction has been recorded on any material.

Investigating off-Hugoniot states using multi-layer ring-up targets

Scientific Reports Springer Nature 10:1 (2020) 13172

Authors:

D McGonegle, Pg Heighway, M Sliwa, Ca Bolme, Aj Comley, Le Dresselhaus-Marais, A Higginbotham, Aj Poole, Ee McBride, B Nagler, I Nam, Mh Seaberg, Ba Remington, Re Rudd, Ce Wehrenberg, Js Wark

Abstract:

Laser compression has long been used as a method to study solids at high pressure. This is commonly achieved by sandwiching a sample between two diamond anvils and using a ramped laser pulse to slowly compress the sample, while keeping it cool enough to stay below the melt curve. We demonstrate a different approach, using a multilayer ‘ring-up’ target whereby laser-ablation pressure compresses Pb up to 150 GPa while keeping it solid, over two times as high in pressure than where it would shock melt on the Hugoniot. We find that the efficiency of this approach compares favourably with the commonly used diamond sandwich technique and could be important for new facilities located at XFELs and synchrotrons which often have higher repetition rate, lower energy lasers which limits the achievable pressures that can be reached.

Recovery of a high-pressure phase formed under laser-driven compression

Physical Review B American Physical Society (APS) 102:2 (2020) 24101

Authors:

Mg Gorman, D McGonegle, Sj Tracy, Sm Clarke, Ca Bolme, Ae Gleason, Sj Ali, S Hok, Cw Greeff, Pg Heighway, K Hulpach, B Glam, E Galtier, Hj Lee, Js Wark, Jh Eggert, Jk Wicks, Rf Smith

Non-isentropic release of a shocked solid

Physical Review Letters American Physical Society 123:24 (2019) 245501

Authors:

PG Heighway, M Sliwa, D McGonegle, C Wehrenberg, CA Bolme, J Eggert, A Higginbotham, A Lazicki, HJ Lee, B Nagler, H-S Park, RE Rudd, RF Smith, MJ Suggit, D Swift, F Tavella, BA Remington, Justin Wark

Abstract:

We present molecular dynamics simulations of shock and release in micron-scale tantalum crystals that exhibit postbreakout temperatures far exceeding those expected under the standard assumption of isentropic release. We show via an energy-budget analysis that this is due to plastic-work heating from material strength that largely counters thermoelastic cooling. The simulations are corroborated by experiments where the release temperatures of laser-shocked tantalum foils are deduced from their thermal strains via in situ x-ray diffraction and are found to be close to those behind the shock.