Chemical Interaction at the MoO3/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx Interface.
Abstract:The limited long-term stability of metal halide perovskite-based solar cells is a bottleneck in their drive toward widespread commercial adaptation. The organic hole-transport materials (HTMs) have been implicated in the degradation, and metal oxide layers are proposed as alternatives. One of the most prominent metal oxide HTM in organic photovoltaics is MoO3. However, the use of MoO3 as HTM in metal halide perovskite-based devices causes a severe solar cell deterioration. Thus, the formation of the MoO3/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx (MAPbI3-xClx) heterojunction is systematically studied by synchrotron-based hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Upon MoO3 deposition, significant chemical interaction is induced at the MoO3/MAPbI3-xClx interface: substoichiometric molybdenum oxide is present, and the perovskite decomposes in the proximity of the interface, leading to accumulation of PbI2 on the MoO3 cover layer. Furthermore, we find evidence for the formation of new compounds such as PbMoO4, PbN2O2, and PbO as a result of the MAPbI3-xClx decomposition and suggest chemical reaction pathways to describe the underlying mechanism. These findings suggest that the (direct) MoO3/MAPbI3-xClx interface may be inherently unstable. It provides an explanation for the low power conversion efficiencies of metal halide perovskite solar cells that use MoO3 as a hole-transport material and in which there is a direct contact between MoO3 and perovskite.
Giant fine structure splitting of the bright exciton in a bulk MAPbBr3 single crystal
Abstract:Exciton fine structure splitting in semiconductors reflects the underlying symmetry of the crystal and quantum confinement. Since the latter factor strongly enhances the exchange interaction, most work has focused on nanostructures. Here, we report on the first observation of the bright exciton fine structure splitting in a bulk semiconductor crystal, where the impact of quantum confinement can be specifically excluded, giving access to the intrinsic properties of the material. Detailed investigation of the exciton photoluminescence and reflection spectra of a bulk methylammonium lead tribromide single crystal reveals a zero magnetic field splitting as large as ~200μeV. This result provides an important starting point for the discussion of the origin of the large bright exciton fine structure observed in perovskite nanocrystals.
Revealing the nature of photoluminescence emission in the metal-halide double perovskite Cs2AgBiBr6
Double perovskite crystals such as Cs2AgBiBr6 are expected to overcome the limitation of classic hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite crystals related to the presence of lead and the lack of structural stability. Perovskites are ionic crystals in which the carriers are expected to strongly couple to lattice vibrations. In this work we demonstrate that the photoluminescence (PL) emission in Cs2AgBiBr6 is strongly influenced by the strong electron–phonon coupling. Combining photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and Raman spectroscopy we show that the PL emission is related to a color center rather than a band-to-band transition. The broadening and the Stokes shift of the PL emission from Cs2AgBiBr6 is well explained using a Franck–Condon model with a Huang–Rhys factor of S = 11.7 indicating a strong electron–phonon interaction in this material.