Rotation Curves in z ∼ 1-2 Star-forming Disks: Comparison of Dark Matter Fractions and Disk Properties for Different Fitting Methods
Astrophysical Journal 922:2 (2021)
Abstract:We present a follow-up analysis examining the dynamics and structures of 41 massive, large star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 0.67 - 2.45 using both ionized and molecular gas kinematics. We fit the galaxy dynamics with models consisting of a bulge, a thick, turbulent disk, and an NFW dark matter halo, using code that fully forward-models the kinematics, including all observational and instrumental effects. We explore the parameter space using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling, including priors based on stellar and gas masses and disk sizes. We fit the full sample using extracted 1D kinematic profiles. For a subset of 14 well-resolved galaxies, we also fit the 2D kinematics. The MCMC approach robustly confirms the results from least-squares fitting presented in Paper I: the sample galaxies tend to be baryon-rich on galactic scales (within one effective radius). The 1D and 2D MCMC results are also in good agreement for the subset, demonstrating that much of the galaxy dynamical information is captured along the major axis. The 2D kinematics are more affected by the presence of noncircular motions, which we illustrate by constructing a toy model with constant inflow for one galaxy that exhibits residual signatures consistent with radial motions. This analysis, together with results from Paper I and other studies, strengthens the finding that massive, star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1 - 2 are baryon-dominated on galactic scales, with lower dark matter fractions toward higher baryonic surface densities. Finally, we present details of the kinematic fitting code used in this analysis.
The GRAVITY young stellar object survey: VII. The inner dusty disks of T Tauri stars
Astronomy and Astrophysics 655 (2021)
Abstract:Context. T Tauri stars are surrounded by dust and gas disks. As material reservoirs from which matter is accreted onto the central star and planets are built, these protoplanetary disks play a central role in star and planet formation. Aims. We aim at spatially resolving at sub-astronomical unit (sub-au) scales the innermost regions of the protoplanetary disks around a sample of T Tauri stars to better understand their morphology and composition. Methods. Thanks to the sensitivity and the better spatial frequency coverage of the GRAVITY instrument of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer, we extended our homogeneous data set of 27 Herbig stars and collected near-infrared K-band interferometric observations of 17 T Tauri stars, spanning effective temperatures and luminosities in the ranges of ~4000-6000 K and ~0.4-10 L? , respectively. We focus on the continuum emission and develop semi-physical geometrical models to fit the interferometric data and search for trends between the properties of the disk and the central star. Results. As for those of their more massive counterparts, the Herbig Ae/Be stars, the best-fit models of the inner rim of the T Tauri disks correspond to wide rings. The GRAVITY measurements extend the radius-luminosity relation toward the smallest luminosities (0.4-10 L? ). As observed previously, in this range of luminosities, the R ? L1? 2 trend line is no longer valid, and the K-band sizes measured with GRAVITY appear to be larger than the predicted sizes derived from sublimation radius computation. We do not see a clear correlation between the K-band half-flux radius and the mass accretion rate onto the central star. Besides, having magnetic truncation radii in agreement with the K-band GRAVITY sizes would require magnetic fields as strong as a few kG, which should have been detected, suggesting that accretion is not the main process governing the location of the half-flux radius of the inner dusty disk. The GRAVITY measurements agree with models that take into account the scattered light, which could be as important as thermal emission in the K band for these cool stars. The N-to-K band size ratio may be a proxy for disentangling disks with silicate features in emission from disks with weak and/or in absorption silicate features (i.e., disks with depleted inner regions and/or with large gaps). The GRAVITY data also provide inclinations and position angles of the inner disks. When compared to those of the outer disks derived from ALMA images of nine objects of our sample, we detect clear misalignments between both disks for four objects. Conclusions. The combination of improved data quality with a significant and homogeneous sample of young stellar objects allows us to revisit the pioneering works done on the protoplanetary disks by K-band interferometry and to test inner disk physics such as the inner rim morphology and location.
The search for living worlds and the connection to our cosmic origins
EXPERIMENTAL ASTRONOMY (2021)
A geometric distance to the supermassive black Hole of NGC 3783
Astronomy and Astrophysics 654 (2021)
Abstract:The angular size of the broad line region (BLR) of the nearby active galactic nucleus NGC 3783 has been spatially resolved by recent observations with VLTI/GRAVITY. A reverberation mapping (RM) campaign has also recently obtained high quality light curves and measured the linear size of the BLR in a way that is complementary to the GRAVITY measurement. The size and kinematics of the BLR can be better constrained by a joint analysis that combines both GRAVITY and RM data. This, in turn, allows us to obtain the mass of the supermassive black hole in NGC 3783 with an accuracy that is about a factor of two better than that inferred from GRAVITY data alone. We derive MBH = 2.54-0.72+0.90 × 107 M⊙ . Finally, and perhaps most notably, we are able to measure a geometric distance to NGC 3783 of 39.9-11.9+14.5 Mpc. We are able to test the robustness of the BLR-based geometric distance with measurements based on the Tully-Fisher relation and other indirect methods. We find the geometric distance is consistent with other methods within their scatter. We explore the potential of BLR-based geometric distances to directly constrain the Hubble constant, H0, and identify differential phase uncertainties as the current dominant limitation to the H0 measurement precision for individual sources.
Constraining particle acceleration in Sgr A with simultaneous GRAVITY, Spitzer, NuSTAR, and Chandra observations
Astronomy and Astrophysics 654 (2021)