Forecast-based attribution of a winter heatwave within the limit of predictability
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Sciences 118:49 (2021) e2112087118
Abstract:The question of how humans have influenced individual extreme weather events is both scientifically and socially important. However, deficiencies in climate models’ representations of key mechanisms within the process chains that drive weather reduce our confidence in estimates of the human influence on extreme events. We propose that using forecast models that successfully predicted the event in question could increase the robustness of such estimates. Using a successful forecast means we can be confident that the model is able to faithfully represent the characteristics of the specific extreme event. We use this forecast-based methodology to estimate the direct radiative impact of increased CO2 concentrations (one component, but not the entirety, of human influence) on the European heatwave of February 2019.
More accuracy with less precision
QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY (2021)
Resilience in the developing world benefits everyone
NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE 10:9 (2020) 794-795
Assessing the robustness of multidecadal variability in Northern Hemisphere wintertime seasonal forecast skill
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society Wiley 146:733 (2020) qj.3890
Abstract:Recent studies have found evidence of multidecadal variability in northern hemisphere wintertime seasonal forecast skill. Here we assess the robustness of this finding by extending the analysis to analysing a diverse set of ensemble atmospheric model simulations. These simulations differ in either numerical model or type of initialisation and include atmospheric model experiments initialised with reanalysis data and free‐running atmospheric model ensembles. All ensembles are forced with observed SST and seaice boundary conditions. Analysis of large‐scale Northern Hemisphere circulation indicesover the Northern Hemisphere (namely the North Atlantic Oscillation, Pacific North American pattern and the Arctic Oscillation) reveals that in all ensembles there is larger correlation skill in the late century periods than during periods in the mid‐century. Similar multidecadal variability in skill is found in a measure of total skill integrated over the whole of the extratropics. Most of the differences in large‐scale circulation skill between the skillful late period (as well as early period) and the less skillful mid‐century period seem to be due to a reduction in skill over the North Pacific and a disappearance in skill over North America and the North Atlantic. The results are robust across different models and different types of initialisation, indicating that the multidecadal variability in Northern Hemisphere winter skill is a robust feature of 20th century climate variability. Multidecadal variability in skill therefore arises from the evolution of the observed SSTs, likely related to a weakened influence of ENSO on the predictable extratropical circulation signal during the middle of the 20th century, and is evident in the signal‐to‐noise ratio of the different ensembles, particularly the larger ensembles.
Beyond skill scores: exploring sub‐seasonal forecast value through a case‐study of French month‐ahead energy prediction
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society Wiley 146:733 (2020) 3623-3637