Convection Modeling of Pure-steam Atmospheres
ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS 923:1 (2021) ARTN L15
Inferring Shallow Surfaces on Sub-Neptune Exoplanets with JWST
ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS 922:2 (2021) ARTN L27
A multispecies pseudoadiabat for simulating condensable-rich exoplanet atmospheres
Planetary Science Journal American Astronomical Society 2:5 (2021) 207
Abstract:Central stages in the evolution of rocky, potentially habitable planets may play out under atmospheric conditions with a large inventory of nondilute condensable components. Variations in condensate retention and accompanying changes in local lapse rate may substantially affect planetary climate and surface conditions, but there is currently no general theory to effectively describe such atmospheres. In this article, expanding on the work by Li et al., we generalize the single-component moist pseudoadiabat derivation in Pierrehumbert to allow for multiple condensing components of arbitrary diluteness and retained condensate fraction. The introduction of a freely tunable retained condensate fraction allows for a flexible, self-consistent treatment of atmospheres with nondilute condensable components. To test the pseudoadiabat's capabilities for simulating a diverse range of climates, we apply the formula to planetary atmospheres with compositions, surface pressures, and temperatures representing important stages with condensable-rich atmospheres in the evolution of terrestrial planets: a magma ocean planet in a runaway greenhouse state; a post-impact, late-veneer-analog planet with a complex atmospheric composition; and an Archean Earth-like planet near the outer edge of the classical circumstellar habitable zone. We find that variations in the retention of multiple nondilute condensable species can significantly affect the lapse rate and in turn outgoing radiation and the spectral signatures of planetary atmospheres. The presented formulation allows for a more comprehensive treatment of the climate evolution of rocky exoplanets and early Earth analogs.
Simulating gas giant exoplanet atmospheres with Exo-FMS: comparing semigrey, picket fence, and correlated-k radiative-transfer schemes
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Royal Astronomical Society 506:2 (2021) 2695-2711
Abstract:Radiative-transfer (RT) is a fundamental part of modelling exoplanet atmospheres with general circulation models (GCMs). An accurate RT scheme is required for estimates of the atmospheric energy transport and for gaining physical insight from model spectra. We implement three RT schemes for Exo-FMS: semigrey, non-grey ‘picket fence’, and real gas with correlated-k. We benchmark the Exo-FMS GCM, using these RT schemes to hot Jupiter simulation results from the literature. We perform a HD 209458b-like simulation with the three schemes and compare their results. These simulations are then post-processed to compare their observable differences. The semigrey scheme results show qualitative agreement with previous studies in line with variations seen between GCM models. The real gas model reproduces well the temperature and dynamical structures from other studies. After post-processing our non-grey picket fence scheme compares very favourably with the real gas model, producing similar transmission spectra, emission spectra, and phase curve behaviours. Exo-FMS is able to reliably reproduce the essential features of contemporary GCM models in the hot gas giant regime. Our results suggest the picket fence approach offers a simple way to improve upon RT realism beyond semigrey schemes.
3D Convection-resolving Model of Temperate, Tidally Locked Exoplanets
ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 913:2 (2021) ARTN 101