### On the energetics of a tidally oscillating convective flow

*Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society*Oxford University Press

**525:1**(2023) 508-526

#### Abstract:

This paper examines the energetics of a convective flow subject to an oscillation with a period $t_{\rm osc}$ much smaller than the convective time-scale $t_{\rm conv}$, allowing for compressibility and uniform rotation. We show that the energy of the oscillation is exchanged with the kinetic energy of the convective flow at a rate $D_R$ that couples the Reynolds stress of the oscillation with the convective velocity gradient. For the equilibrium tide and inertial waves, this is the only energy exchange term, whereas for p modes there are also exchanges with the potential and internal energy of the convective flow. Locally, $\left| D_R \right| \sim u^{\prime 2} / t_{\rm conv}$, where $u^{\prime}$ is the oscillating velocity. If $t_{\rm conv} \ll t_{\rm osc}$ and assuming mixing length theory, $\left| D_R \right|$ is $\left( \lambda_{\rm conv} / \lambda_{\rm osc} \right)^2$ smaller, where $\lambda_{\rm conv}$ and $\lambda_{\rm osc}$ are the characteristic scales of convection and the oscillation. Assuming local dissipation, we show that the equilibrium tide lags behind the tidal potential by a phase $\delta(r) \sim r \omega_{\rm osc} / \left( g(r) t_{\rm conv}(r) \right)$, where g is the gravitational acceleration. The equilibrium tide can be described locally as a harmonic oscillator with natural frequency $\left( g/r \right)^{1/2}$ and subject to a damping force $-u^{\prime}/t_{\rm conv}$. Although $\delta(r)$ varies by orders of magnitude through the flow, it is possible to define an average phase shift $\overline{\delta }$ which is in good agreement with observations for Jupiter and some of the moons of Saturn. Finally, $1 / \overline{\delta }$ is shown to be equal to the standard tidal dissipation factor.### The circularization timescales of late–type binary stars

*Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society*Oxford University Press (OUP) (2021)

#### Abstract:

We examine the consequences of, and apply, the formalism developed in Terquem (2021) for calculating the rate DR at which energy is exchanged between fast tides and convection. In this previous work, DR (which is proportional to the gradient of the convective velocity) was assumed to be positive in order to dissipate the tidal energy. Here we argue that, even if energy is intermittently transferred from convection to the tides, it must ultimately return to the convective flow and transported efficiently to the stellar surface on the convective timescale. This is consistent with, but much less restrictive than, enforcing DR > 0. Our principle result is a calculation of the circularization timescale of late-type binaries, taking into account the full time evolution of the stellar structure. We find that circularization is very efficient during the PMS phase, inefficient during the MS, and once again efficient when the star approaches the RGB. These results are in much better agreement with observations than earlier theories. We also apply our formalism to hot Jupiters, and find that tidal dissipation in a Jupiter mass planet yields a circularization timescale of 1 Gyr for an orbital period of 3 d, also in good overall agreement with observations. The approach here is novel, and the apparent success of the theory in resolving longstanding timescale puzzles is compelling.### On a new formulation for energy transfer between convection and fast tides with application to giant planets and solar type stars

*Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society*Royal Astronomical Society

**503:4**(2021) 5789-5806

#### Abstract:

All the studies of the interaction between tides and a convective flow assume that the large scale tides can be described as a mean shear flow which is damped by small scale fluctuating convective eddies. The convective Reynolds stress is calculated using mixing length theory, accounting for a sharp suppression of dissipation when the turnover timescale is larger than the tidal period. This yields tidal dissipation rates several orders of magnitude too small to account for the circularization periods of late–type binaries or the tidal dissipation factor of giant planets. Here, we argue that the above description is inconsistent, because fluctuations and mean flow should be identified based on the timescale, not on the spatial scale, on which they vary. Therefore, the standard picture should be reversed, with the fluctuations being the tidal oscillations and the mean shear flow provided by the largest convective eddies. We assume that energy is locally transferred from the tides to the convective flow. Using this assumption, we obtain values for the tidal Q factor of Jupiter and Saturn and for the circularization periods of PMS binaries in good agreement with observations. The timescales obtained with the equilibrium tide approximation are however still 40 times too large to account for the circularization periods of late–type binaries. For these systems, shear in the tachocline or at the base of the convective zone may be the main cause of tidal dissipation.### Planetary Systems: From Symmetry to Chaos

Chapter in

*The Language of Symmetry*, (2023) 1-11#### Abstract:

This chapter first discusses the definitions of disorder and chaos in physics. Then, Professor Terquem explores the dynamics of planetary systems. In particular, she examines how the seemingly chaotic process of planetary formation yields synchronised systems in their orbits. The transition is an excellent example of how a disordered physical system can generally tend to a state of orderedness.### On the energetics of a tidally oscillating convective flow

*Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society*Oxford University Press

**525:1**(2023) 508-526