Validation of gyrokinetic simulations in NSTX and projections for high-k turbulence measurements in NSTX-U
Physics of Plasmas American Institute of Physics 27:12 (2020) 122505
Abstract:An extensive validation effort performed for a modest-beta NSTX NBI-heated H-mode discharge predicts that electron thermal transport can be entirely explained by electron-scale turbulence fluctuations driven by the electron temperature gradient mode (ETG), both in conditions of strong and weak ETG turbulence drive. Thermal power-balance estimates computed by TRANSP as well as the shape of the high-k density fluctuation wavenumber spectrum and the fluctuation level ratio between strongly driven and weakly driven ETG-turbulence conditions can be matched by nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations and a synthetic diagnostic for high-k scattering. Linear gyrokinetic simulations suggest that the ion-scale instability in the weak ETG condition is close to the critical threshold for the kinetic ballooning mode instability, and nonlinear ion-scale gyrokinetic simulations show that turbulence might be in a state reminiscent of a Dimits' shift regime, opening speculation on the role that ion-scale turbulence might play for the weak ETG condition. A simulation that matched all experimental constraints is chosen to project high-k turbulence spectra in NSTX-U, revealing that the new high-k system [R. Barchfeld et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89, 10C114 (2018)] should be sensitive to density fluctuations from radially elongated streamer structures. Two schemes are designed to characterize the radial and poloidal wavenumber dependence of the density fluctuation wavenumber power spectrum around the streamer peak, suggesting future high-k fluctuation measurements could be sensitive to an asymmetry in the kr spectrum introduced due to the presence of strong background flow shear.
Quantitative comparisons of electron-scale turbulence measurements in NSTX via synthetic diagnostics for high-k scattering
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion IOP Publishing 62:7 (2020) 75001
Abstract:Two synthetic diagnostics are implemented for the high-k scattering system in NSTX (Smith et al 2008 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79 123501) allowing direct comparisons between the synthetic and experimentally detected frequency and wavenumber spectra of electron-scale turbulence fluctuations. Synthetic diagnostics are formulated in real-space and in wavenumber space, and are deployed in realistic electron-scale simulations carried out with the GYRO code (Candy and Waltz 2003 J. Comput. Phys. 186 545). A highly unstable electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode regime in a modest-β NSTX NBI-heated H-mode discharge is chosen for the analysis. Mapping the measured wavenumbers to field aligned coordinates shows that the high-k system is sensitive to fluctuations that are closer to the spectral peak in the density fluctuation wavenumber spectrum (streamers) than originally predicted. The analyses of synthetic spectra show that the frequency response of the detected fluctuations is dominated by Doppler shift and is insensitive to the turbulence drive. The shape of the high-k density fluctuation wavenumber spectrum is sensitive to the ETG turbulence drive conditions, and can be reproduced in a sensitivity scan of the most pertinent turbulent drive terms in the simulation.
Exploring the regime of validity of global gyrokinetic simulations with spherical tokamak plasmas
NUCLEAR FUSION 60:2 (2020) ARTN 026005
Validation of gyrokinetic simulations of a National Spherical Torus eXperiment H-mode plasma and comparisons with a high-k scattering synthetic diagnostic
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion IOP Publishing 61:11 (2019) 115015-115015
Conceptual design study for heat exhaust management in the ARC fusion pilot plant
Fusion Engineering and Design 137 (2018) 221-242