INSPIRE: INvestigating Stellar Population In RElics: I. Survey presentation and pilot study
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS 646 (2021) ARTN A28
Gravitationally lensed quasars in Gaia – IV. 150 new lenses, quasar pairs, and projected quasars
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 520:3 (2023) 3305-3328
Abstract:We report the spectroscopic follow-up of 175 lensed quasar candidates selected using Gaia Data Release 2 observations following Paper III of this series. Systems include 86 confirmed lensed quasars and a further 17 likely lensed quasars based on imaging and/or similar spectra. We also confirm 11 projected quasar pairs and 11 physical quasar pairs, while 25 systems are left as unclassified quasar pairs – pairs of quasars at the same redshift, which could be either distinct quasars or potential lensed quasars. Especially interesting objects include eight quadruply imaged quasars of which two have BAL sources, an apparent triple, and a doubly lensed LoBaL quasar. The source redshifts and image separations of these new lenses range between 0.65–3.59 and 0.78–6.23 arcsec, respectively. We compare the known population of lensed quasars to an updated mock catalogue at image separations between 1 and 4 arcsec, showing a very good match at z < 1.5. At z > 1.5, only 47 per cent of the predicted number are known, with 56 per cent of these missing lenses at image separations below 1.5 arcsec. The missing higher redshift, small-separation systems will have fainter lensing galaxies, and are partially explained by the unclassified quasar pairs and likely lenses presented in this work, which require deeper imaging. Of the 11 new reported projected quasar pairs, 5 have impact parameters below 10 kpc, almost tripling the number of such systems, which can probe the innermost regions of quasar host galaxies through absorption studies. We also report four new lensed galaxies discovered through our searches, with source redshifts ranging from 0.62 to 2.79.
INSPIRE: INvestigating Stellar Population In RElics: III. Second data release (DR2): testing the systematics on the stellar velocity dispersion
Astronomy and Astrophysics 672 (2023)
Abstract:Context. The project called INvestigating Stellar Population In RElics (INSPIRE) is based on VLT/X-shooter data from the homonymous on-going ESO Large Program. It targets 52 ultra-compact massive galaxies at 0.1 < z < 0.5 with the goal of constraining their kinematics and stellar population properties in great detail and of analysing their relic nature. Aims. This is the second INSPIRE data release (DR2), comprising 21 new systems with observations completed before March 2022. For each system, we release four one-dimensional (1D) spectra to the ESO Science Archive, one spectrum for each arm of the X-Shooter spectrograph. They are at their original resolution. We also release a combined and smoothed spectrum with a full width at half maximum resolution of 2.51 Å. In this paper, we focus on the line-of-sight velocity distribution, measuring integrated stellar velocity dispersions from the spectra, and assessing their robustness and the associated uncertainties. Methods. For each of the 21 new systems, we systematically investigated the effect of the parameters and set-ups of the full spectral ftting on the stellar velocity dispersion (s) measurements. In particular, we tested how s changes when several parameters of the ft as well as the resolution and spectral coverage of the input spectra are varied. Results. We found that the effect that causes the largest systematic uncertainties on s is the wavelength range used for the ft, especially for spectra with a lower signal-to-noise ratio (S/N = 30). When using blue wavelengths (UVB arm) one generally underestimates the velocity dispersion (by ∼15 km s-1). The values obtained from the near-IR (NIR) arm present a larger scatter because the quality of the spectra is lower. We fnally compared our results with those in literature, fnding a very good agreement overall. Conclusions. Joining results obtained in DR1 with those presented here, INSPIRE contains 40 ultra-compact massive galaxies, corresponding to 75% of the whole survey. By plotting these systems in a stellar mass velocity dispersion diagram, we identify at least four highly reliable relic candidates among the new systems. Their velocity dispersion is larger than that of normal-sized galaxies of similar stellar mass.
TDCOSMO: XI. New lensing galaxy redshift and velocity dispersion measurements from Keck spectroscopy of eight lensed quasar systems
Astronomy and Astrophysics 672 (2023)
Abstract:We have measured the redshifts and single-aperture velocity dispersions of eight lens galaxies using the data collected by the Echellette Spectrograph and Imager (ESI) and Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) at W.M. Keck observatory on different observing nights spread over three years (2018-2020). These results, combined with other ancillary data, such as high-resolution images of the lens systems, and time delays, are necessary to increase the sample size of the quasar-galaxy lens systems for which the Hubble constant can be measured, using the time-delay strong lensing method, hence increasing the precision of its inference. Typically, the 2D spectra of the quasar-galaxy lens systems get spatially blended due to seeing by ground-based observations. As a result, the extracted lensing galaxy (deflector) spectra become significantly contaminated by quasar light, which affects the ability to extract meaningful information about the deflector. To account for spatial blending and extract less contaminated and higher signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) 1D spectra of the deflectors, a forward modeling method has been implemented. From the extracted spectra, we have measured redshifts using prominent absorption lines and single aperture velocity dispersions using the penalized pixel fitting code pPXF. In this paper, we report the redshifts and single aperture velocity dispersions of eight lens galaxies -J0147+4630, B0445+123, B0631+519, J0659+1629, J0818-2613, J0924+0219, J1433+6007, and J1817+2729. Among these systems, six do not have previously measured velocity dispersions; for the other two, our measurements are consistent with previously reported values. Additionally, we have measured the previously unknown redshifts of the deflectors in J0818-2613 and J1817+2729 to be 0.866 ± 0.002 and 0.408 ± 0.002, respectively.
Galaxy populations in the Hydra I cluster from the VEGAS survey II. The ultra-diffuse galaxy population
ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS 665 (2022) ARTN A105