The circularization timescales of late–type binary stars

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press (OUP) (2021)

Authors:

Caroline Terquem, Scott Martin

Abstract:

We examine the consequences of, and apply, the formalism developed in Terquem (2021) for calculating the rate DR at which energy is exchanged between fast tides and convection. In this previous work, DR (which is proportional to the gradient of the convective velocity) was assumed to be positive in order to dissipate the tidal energy. Here we argue that, even if energy is intermittently transferred from convection to the tides, it must ultimately return to the convective flow and transported efficiently to the stellar surface on the convective timescale. This is consistent with, but much less restrictive than, enforcing DR > 0. Our principle result is a calculation of the circularization timescale of late-type binaries, taking into account the full time evolution of the stellar structure. We find that circularization is very efficient during the PMS phase, inefficient during the MS, and once again efficient when the star approaches the RGB. These results are in much better agreement with observations than earlier theories. We also apply our formalism to hot Jupiters, and find that tidal dissipation in a Jupiter mass planet yields a circularization timescale of 1 Gyr for an orbital period of 3 d, also in good overall agreement with observations. The approach here is novel, and the apparent success of the theory in resolving longstanding timescale puzzles is compelling.

Pen portraits of Presidents - Professor Raymond Hide, CBE, ScD, FRS

WEATHER (2021)

Authors:

Chris K Folland, Peter L Read

A multispecies pseudoadiabat for simulating condensable-rich exoplanet atmospheres

Planetary Science Journal American Astronomical Society 2:5 (2021) 207

Authors:

Rj Graham, Tim Lichtenberg, Ryan Boukrouche, Raymond Pierrehumbert

Abstract:

Central stages in the evolution of rocky, potentially habitable planets may play out under atmospheric conditions with a large inventory of nondilute condensable components. Variations in condensate retention and accompanying changes in local lapse rate may substantially affect planetary climate and surface conditions, but there is currently no general theory to effectively describe such atmospheres. In this article, expanding on the work by Li et al., we generalize the single-component moist pseudoadiabat derivation in Pierrehumbert to allow for multiple condensing components of arbitrary diluteness and retained condensate fraction. The introduction of a freely tunable retained condensate fraction allows for a flexible, self-consistent treatment of atmospheres with nondilute condensable components. To test the pseudoadiabat's capabilities for simulating a diverse range of climates, we apply the formula to planetary atmospheres with compositions, surface pressures, and temperatures representing important stages with condensable-rich atmospheres in the evolution of terrestrial planets: a magma ocean planet in a runaway greenhouse state; a post-impact, late-veneer-analog planet with a complex atmospheric composition; and an Archean Earth-like planet near the outer edge of the classical circumstellar habitable zone. We find that variations in the retention of multiple nondilute condensable species can significantly affect the lapse rate and in turn outgoing radiation and the spectral signatures of planetary atmospheres. The presented formulation allows for a more comprehensive treatment of the climate evolution of rocky exoplanets and early Earth analogs.

A multispecies pseudoadiabat for simulating condensable-rich exoplanet atmospheres

ArXiv 2108.12902 (2021)

Authors:

RJ Graham, Tim Lichtenberg, Ryan Boukrouche, Ray Pierrehumbert

Comments on Barker and Astoul (2021)

(2021)

Abstract:

The tidal evolution of interacting binaries when the orbital period is short compared to the primary star's convective time scale is a problem of long-standing. Terquem (2021) has argued that, when this temporal ordering scheme is obeyed, the rate of energy transfer from tides to convection (denoted $D_R$) is given by the product of the averaged Reynolds stress associated with the tidal velocity and the mean shear associated with the convective flow. In a recent response, Barker and Astoul (2021, hereafter BA21) claim to show that $D_R$ (in this form) cannot contribute to tidal dissipation. Their analysis is based on a study of Boussinesq and anelastic models. Here, we demonstrate that BA21 misidentify the correct term responsible for energy transfer between tides and convection. As a consequence, their anelastic calculations do not prove that the $D_R$ formulation is invalidated as an energy-loss coupling between tides and convection. BA21 also carry out a calculation in the Boussinesq approximation. Here, their claim that $D_R$ once again does not contribute is based on boundary conditions that do not apply to any star or planet that radiates energy from its surface, which is a key dissipational process in the problem we consider.