Signatures of feedback in the spectacular extended emission region of NGC 5972
Abstract:We present Chandra X-ray Observatory observations and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra of NGC 5972, one of the 19 'Voorwerpjes' galaxies. This galaxy contains an extended emission-line region (EELR) and an arcsecond scale nuclear bubble. NGC 5972 is a faded active galactic nucleus (AGN), with EELR luminosity suggesting a 2.1 dex decrease in Lbol in the last ∼5 × 104 yr. We investigate the role of AGN feedback in exciting the EELR and bubble given the long-term variability and potential accretion state changes. We detect broad-band (0.3-8 keV) X-ray emission in the near-nuclear regions, coincident with the [O iii] bubble, as well as diffuse soft X-ray emission coincident with the EELR. The soft nuclear (0.5-1.5 keV) emission is spatially extended and the spectra are consistent with two apec thermal populations (∼0.80 and ∼0.10 keV). We find a bubble age >2.2 Myr, suggesting formation before the current variability. We find evidence for efficient feedback with, which may be overestimated given the recent Lbol variation. [O iii] kinematics show a 300 km s-1 high-ionization velocity consistent with disturbed rotation or potentially the line-of-sight component of a ∼780 km s-1 thermal X-ray outflow capable of driving strong shocks to photoionize the precursor material. We explore possibilities to explain the overall jet, radio lobe and EELR misalignment including evidence for a double supermassive black hole which could support a complex misaligned system.
FRB 20121102A: images of the bursts and the varying radio counterpart
Abstract:As more Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are being localized, we are learning that some fraction have persistent radio sources (PRSs). Such a discovery motivates an improvement in our understanding of the nature of those counterparts, the relation to the bursts themselves and why only some FRBs have PRSs. We report on observations made of FRB 20121102A with the MeerKAT radio telescope. Across five epochs, we detect the PRS associated with FRB 20121102A. Our observations are split into a cluster of four epochs (MJD 58732-58764) and a separate single epoch about 1000 d later. The measured flux density is constant across the first four observations but then decays by more than one-third in the final observation. Our observations on MJD 58736 coincided with the detections of 11 bursts from FRB 20121102A by the MeerTRAP backend, seven of which we detected in the image plane. We discuss the importance of image plane detections when considering the commensal transient searches being performed with MeerKAT and other radio facilities. We find that MeerKAT is so sensitive that within a 2-s image, we can detect any FRB with a flux density above 2.4 mJy at 1.3 GHz and so could localize every FRB that has been detected by CHIME to date.
The JWST Hubble Sequence: The Rest-frame Optical Evolution of Galaxy Structure at 1.5< z <6.5
Abstract:We present results on the morphological and structural evolution of a total of 3956 galaxies observed with JWST at 1.5 < z < 6.5 in the JWST CEERS observations that overlap with the CANDELS EGS field. This is the biggest visually classified sample observed with JWST yet, ∼20 times larger than previous studies, and allows us to examine in detail how galaxy structure has changed over this critical epoch. All sources were classified by six individual classifiers using a simple classification scheme aimed at producing disk/spheroid/peculiar classifications, whereby we determine how the relative number of these morphologies has evolved since the Universe’s first billion years. Additionally, we explore structural and quantitative morphology measurements using Morfometryka, and show that galaxies with M * > 109 M ⊙ at z > 3 are not dominated by irregular and peculiar structures, either visually or quantitatively, as previously thought. We find a strong dominance of morphologically selected disk galaxies up to z = 6 in this mass range. We also find that the stellar mass and star formation rate densities are dominated by disk galaxies up to z ∼ 6, demonstrating that most stars in the Universe were likely formed in a disk galaxy. We compare our results to theory to show that the fraction of types we find is predicted by cosmological simulations, and that the Hubble Sequence was already in place as early as one billion years after the Big Bang. Additionally, we make our visual classifications public for the community.
Commensal Transient Searches in Eight Short Gamma Ray Burst Fields
A new generation of radio telescopes with excellent sensitivity, instantaneous uv coverage, and large fields of view, are providing unprecedented opportunities for performing commensal transient searches. Here we present such a commensal search in deep observations of short gamma-ray burst fields carried out with the MeerKAT radio telescope in South Africa at 1.3 GHz. These four hour observations of eight different fields span survey lengths of weeks to months. We also carry out transient searches in time slices of the full observations, at timescales of 15 minutes, and 8 seconds. We find 122 variable sources on the long timescales, of which 52 are likely active galactic nuclei, but there are likely also some radio flaring stars. While the variability is intrinsic in at least two cases, most of it is consistent with interstellar scintillation. In this study, we also place constraints on transient rates based on state-of-the-art transient simulations codes. We place an upper limit of 2 × 10−4 transients per day per square degree for transients with peak flux of 5 mJy, and an upper limit of 2.5 × 10−2 transients per day per square degree for transients with a fluence of 10 Jy ms, the minimum detectable fluence of our survey.