Laser diagnostics and minor species detection in combustion using resonant four-wave mixing
PROGRESS IN ENERGY AND COMBUSTION SCIENCE 37:5 (2011) 525-564
High precision in-cylinder gas thermometry using Laser Induced Gratings: Quantitative measurement of evaporative cooling with gasoline/alcohol blends in a GDI optical engine
Combustion and Flame (2013)
Abstract:The first application of Laser Induced Thermal Gratings Spectroscopy (LITGS) for precision thermometry in a firing GDI optical engine is reported. Crank-angle resolved temperature values were derived from LITGS signals generated in fuel vapour with a pressure dependent precision in the range 0.1-1.0% allowing differences in evaporative or charge cooling effects arising from a variety of ethanol and methanol blends with a model gasoline fuel to be quantified. In addition, fluctuations in temperature arising from cyclic variations in compression were directly detected and measured. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.
Multi-species sensing using multi-mode absorption spectroscopy with mid-infrared interband cascade lasers
Applied Physics B Springer Verlag 122:6 (2016) 173
Abstract:The application of an interband cascade laser, ICL, to multi-mode absorption spectroscopy, MUMAS, in the mid-infrared region is reported. Measurements of individual mode linewidths of the ICL, derived from the pressure dependence of lineshapes in MUMAS signatures of single, isolated, lines in the spectrum of HCl, were found to be in the range 10–80 MHz. Multi-line spectra of methane were recorded using spectrally limited bandwidths, of approximate width 27 cm−1, defined by an interference filter, and consist of approximately 80 modes at spectral locations spanning the 100 cm−1 bandwidth of the ICL output. Calibration of the methane pressures derived from MUMAS data using a capacitance manometer provided measurements with an uncertainty of 1.1 %. Multi-species sensing is demonstrated by the simultaneous detection of methane, acetylene and formaldehyde in a gas mixture. Individual partial pressures of the three gases are derived from best fits of model MUMAS signatures to the data with an experimental error of 10 %. Using an ICL, with an inter-mode interval of ~10 GHz, MUMAS spectra were recorded at pressures in the range 1–10 mbar, and, based on the data, a potential minimum detection limit of the order of 100 ppmv is estimated for MUMAS at atmospheric pressure using an inter-mode interval of 80 GHz.
Pressure measurement in combusting and non-combusting gases using laser-induced grating spectroscopy
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics Springer Nature 125:46 (2019)
Abstract:The measurement of pressure using laser-induced thermal grating spectroscopy, LITGS, with improved accuracy and precision is reported. Pressure values are derived from the record of the time-profile of LITGS signals by fitting of modelled signals to experimental data. The procedure is described for accurate modelling of the LIGS signals involving a sequence of calculation steps with appropriate weighting and calibration to determine the best-fit value of pressure-dependent parameters for averaged and single-shot measurements. Results are reported showing application of this model-fitting method to measurements of pressure in static cells using LITGS generated from NO in mixtures containing N2 at pressures in the range 0.5–5.0 bar with accuracy of 1–3% and single-shot precision of 4–7%. Time-resolved measurements of pressure, using LITGS signals generated in toluene-seeded fuel vapour, during the compression and expansion strokes of a motored optically accessible engine are reported with pressure-dependent accuracy ranging from better than 10 to around 20% over the cycle and single-shot precision in the range 5–15% over the same range. Measurements in the engine under firing conditions were obtained over a limited range and slightly increased uncertainties associated with varying composition resulting from exhaust gas residuals. The method was found to be of limited utility for measurements in high temperature flames at around ambient pressures.
Pressure measurement in gas flows using laser-induced grating lifetime
Applied Optics Optical Society of America 60:15 (2021) C131-C141