Organic solar cells—the path to commercial success

Advanced Energy Materials Wiley 11:1 (2020) 2002653

Authors:

Moritz Riede, Donato Spoltore, Karl Leo

Abstract:

Organic solar cells have the potential to become the cheapest form of electricity, beating even silicon photovoltaics. This article summarizes the state of the art in the field, highlighting research challenges, mainly the need for an efficiency increase as well as an improvement in long‐term stability. It discusses possible current and future applications, such as building integrated photovoltaics or portable electronics. Finally, the environmental footprint of this renewable energy technology is evaluated, highlighting the potential to be the energy generation technology with the lowest carbon footprint of all.

Geminate and Nongeminate Pathways for Triplet Exciton Formation in Organic Solar Cells

Advanced Energy Materials Wiley (2022) 2103944-2103944

Authors:

Alberto Privitera, Jeannine Grüne, Akchheta Karki, William K Myers, Vladimir Dyakonov, Thuc‐Quyen Nguyen, Moritz K Riede, Richard H Friend, Andreas Sperlich, Alexander J Gillett

Interfacial rearrangements and strain evolution in the thin film growth of ZnPc on glass

Physical Review Materials American Physical Society 6:3 (2022) 33401

Authors:

Thomas L Derrien, Andreas E Lauritzen, Pascal Kaienburg, Ellis Hancox, Chris Nicklin, Moritz Riede

Abstract:

We report on the characterization of the growth of vacuum-deposited zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) thin films on glass through a combination of in situ grazing incidence x-ray scattering, x-ray reflectivity, and atomic force microscopy. We found that the growth at room temperature proceeds via the formation of two structurally unique substrate-induced interfacial layers, followed by the growth of the γ -ZnPc polymorph thereafter (thickness ≈ 1.0 nm). As the growth of the bulk γ -ZnPc progresses, a substantial out-of-plane lattice strain ( ≈ 15 % relative to γ -ZnPc powder) is continually relaxed during the thin film growth. The rate of strain relaxation was slowed after a thickness of ≈ 13 nm, corresponding to the transition from layer growth to island growth. The findings reveal the real-time microstructural evolution of ZnPc and highlight the importance of substrate-induced strain on thin film growth.

Charge transfer state characterization and voltage losses of organic solar cells

JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-MATERIALS IOP Publishing 5:2 (2022) 24002

Authors:

Anna Jungbluth, Pascal Kaienburg, Moritz Riede

Abstract:

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p>A correct determination of voltage losses is crucial for the development of organic solar cells (OSCs) with improved performance. This requires an in-depth understanding of the properties of interfacial charge transfer (CT) states, which not only set the upper limit for the open-circuit voltage of a system, but also govern radiative and non-radiative recombination processes. Over the last decade, different approaches have emerged to classify voltage losses in OSCs that rely on a generic detailed balance approach or additionally include CT state parameters that are specific to OSCs. In the latter case, a correct determination of CT state properties is paramount. In this work, we summarize the different frameworks used today to calculate voltage losses and provide an in-depth discussion of the currently most important models used to characterize CT state properties from absorption and emission data of organic thin films and solar cells. We also address practical concerns during the data recording, analysis, and fitting process. Departing from the classical two-state Marcus theory approach, we discuss the importance of quantized molecular vibrations and energetic hybridization effects in organic donor-acceptor systems with the goal to providing the reader with a detailed understanding of when each model is most appropriate.</jats:p>

Charge transfer state characterization and voltage losses of organic solar cells

Journal of Physics: Materials IOP Publishing 5:2 (2022) 24002

Authors:

Anna Jungbluth, Pascal Kaienburg, Moritz Riede

Abstract:

A correct determination of voltage losses is crucial for the development of organic solar cells (OSCs) with improved performance. This requires an in-depth understanding of the properties of interfacial charge transfer (CT) states, which not only set the upper limit for the open-circuit voltage of a system, but also govern radiative and non-radiative recombination processes. Over the last decade, different approaches have emerged to classify voltage losses in OSCs that rely on a generic detailed balance approach or additionally include CT state parameters that are specific to OSCs. In the latter case, a correct determination of CT state properties is paramount. In this work, we summarize the different frameworks used today to calculate voltage losses and provide an in-depth discussion of the currently most important models used to characterize CT state properties from absorption and emission data of organic thin films and solar cells. We also address practical concerns during the data recording, analysis, and fitting process. Departing from the classical two-state Marcus theory approach, we discuss the importance of quantized molecular vibrations and energetic hybridization effects in organic donor-acceptor systems with the goal to providing the reader with a detailed understanding of when each model is most appropriate.