Observation of topological superconductivity in a stoichiometric transition metal dichalcogenide 2M-WS2.

Nature communications 12:1 (2021) 2874

Authors:

YW Li, HJ Zheng, YQ Fang, DQ Zhang, YJ Chen, C Chen, AJ Liang, WJ Shi, D Pei, LX Xu, S Liu, J Pan, DH Lu, M Hashimoto, A Barinov, SW Jung, C Cacho, MX Wang, Y He, L Fu, HJ Zhang, FQ Huang, LX Yang, ZK Liu, YL Chen

Abstract:

Topological superconductors (TSCs) are unconventional superconductors with bulk superconducting gap and in-gap Majorana states on the boundary that may be used as topological qubits for quantum computation. Despite their importance in both fundamental research and applications, natural TSCs are very rare. Here, combining state of the art synchrotron and laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we investigated a stoichiometric transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD), 2M-WS2 with a superconducting transition temperature of 8.8 K (the highest among all TMDs in the natural form up to date) and observed distinctive topological surface states (TSSs). Furthermore, in the superconducting state, we found that the TSSs acquired a nodeless superconducting gap with similar magnitude as that of the bulk states. These discoveries not only evidence 2M-WS2 as an intrinsic TSC without the need of sensitive composition tuning or sophisticated heterostructures fabrication, but also provide an ideal platform for device applications thanks to its van der Waals layered structure.

A vacuum ultraviolet laser with a submicrometer spot for spatially resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

Light, science & applications 10:1 (2021) 22

Authors:

Yuanhao Mao, Dong Zhao, Shen Yan, Hongjia Zhang, Juan Li, Kai Han, Xiaojun Xu, Chuan Guo, Lexian Yang, Chaofan Zhang, Kun Huang, Yulin Chen

Abstract:

Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lasers have demonstrated great potential as the light source for various spectroscopies, which, if they can be focused into a small beam spot, will not only allow investigation of mesoscopic materials and structures but also find application in the manufacture of nano-objects with excellent precision. In this work, we report the construction of a 177 nm VUV laser that can achieve a record-small (~0.76 μm) focal spot at a long focal length (~45 mm) by using a flat lens without spherical aberration. The size of the beam spot of this VUV laser was tested using a metal grating and exfoliated graphene flakes, and we demonstrated its application in a fluorescence spectroscopy study on pure and Tm3+-doped NaYF4 microcrystals, revealing a new emission band that cannot be observed in the traditional up-conversion process. In addition, this laser system would be an ideal light source for spatially and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

Kerr effect anomaly in magnetic topological insulator superlattices

Nanotechnology IOP Publishing 31:43 (2020) 434001

Authors:

Jieyi Liu, Angadjit Singh, Balati Kuerbanjiang, Chw Barnes, Thorsten Hesjedal

Abstract:

We report the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) study of magnetic topological insulator superlattice films with alternating transition-metal and rare-earth doping. We observe an unexpected hump in the MOKE hysteresis loops upon magnetization reversal at low temperatures, reminiscent of the topological Hall effect(THE) reported in transport measurements. The THE is commonly associated with the existence of magnetic skyrmions, i.e., chiral spin textures originating from topological defects in real space. Here, the observation of the effect is tied to ferromagnetic ordering in the rare-earth-doped layers of the superlattice. Our study may provide a new approach for the non-invasive optical investigation of skyrmions in magnetic films, complementary to electrical transport measurements, where the topological Hall signal is often the only hint of non-trivial magnetization patterns.

Exchange bias in magnetic topological insulator superlattices

Nano Letters American Chemical Society 20:7 (2020) 5315-5322

Authors:

Jieyi Liu, Angadjit Singh, Yu Yang Fredrik Liu, Adrian Ionescu, Balati Kuerbanjiang, Crispin HW Barnes, Thorsten Hesjedal

Abstract:

Magnetic doping and proximity coupling can open a band gap in a topological insulator (TI) and give rise to dissipationless quantum conduction phenomena. Here, by combining these two approaches, we demonstrate a novel TI superlattice structure that is alternately doped with transition and rare earth elements. An unexpected exchange bias effect is unambiguously confirmed in the superlattice with a large exchange bias field using magneto-transport and magneto-optical techniques. Further, the Curie temperature of the Cr-doped layers in the superlattice is found to increase by 60 K compared to a Cr-doped single-layer film. This result is supported by density-functional-theory calculations, which indicate the presence of antiferromagnetic ordering in Dy:Bi2Te3 induced by proximity coupling to Cr:Sb2Te3 at the interface. This work provides a new pathway to realizing the quantum anomalous Hall effect at elevated temperatures and axion insulator state at zero magnetic field by interface engineering in TI heterostructures.

Super resolution convolutional neural network for feature extraction in spectroscopic data

Review of Scientific Instruments AIP Publishing 91:2020 (2020) 033905

Authors:

Han Peng, Xiang Gao, Yu He, Yuchen Ji, Yulin Chen

Abstract:

Two dimensional (2D) peak finding is a common practice in data analysis for physics experiments, which is typically achieved by computing the local derivatives. However, this method is inherently unstable when the local landscape is complicated, or the signal-to-noise ratio of the data is low. In this work, we propose a new method in which the peak tracking task is formalized as an inverse problem, thus can be solved with a convolutional neural network (CNN). In addition, we show that the underlying physics principle of the experiments can be used to generate the training data. By generalizing the trained neural network on real experimental data, we show that the CNN method can achieve comparable or better results than traditional derivative based methods. This approach can be further generalized in different physics experiments when the physical process is known.