Measuring the baryonic Tully–Fisher relation below the detection threshold

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press (OUP) 508:2 (2021) 1897-1907

Authors:

Hengxing Pan, Matt J Jarvis, Anastasia A Ponomareva, Mario G Santos, James R Allison, Natasha Maddox, Bradley S Frank

Abstract:

ABSTRACT We present a novel 2D flux density model for observed H i emission lines combined with a Bayesian stacking technique to measure the baryonic Tully–Fisher relation below the nominal detection threshold. We simulate a galaxy catalogue, which includes H i lines described with either Gaussian or busy function profiles, and H i data cubes with a range of noise and survey areas similar to the MeerKAT International Giga-Hertz Tiered Extragalactic Exploration (MIGHTEE) survey. With prior knowledge of redshifts, stellar masses, and inclinations of spiral galaxies, we find that our model can reconstruct the input baryonic Tully–Fisher parameters (slope and zero-point) most accurately in a relatively broad redshift range from the local Universe to z = 0.3 for all the considered levels of noise and survey areas and up to z = 0.55 for a nominal noise of 90 $\mu$Jy/channel over 5 deg2. Our model can also determine the $M_{\rm H\, \small {I}} - M_{\star }$ relation for spiral galaxies beyond the local Universe and account for the detailed shape of the H i emission line, which is crucial for understanding the dynamics of spiral galaxies. Thus, we have developed a Bayesian stacking technique for measuring the baryonic Tully–Fisher relation for galaxies at low stellar and/or H i masses and/or those at high redshift, where the direct detection of H i requires prohibitive exposure times.

MIGHTEE-H i: the baryonic Tully–Fisher relation over the last billion years

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press (OUP) 508:1 (2021) 1195-1205

Authors:

Anastasia A Ponomareva, Wanga Mulaudzi, Natasha Maddox, Bradley S Frank, Matt J Jarvis, Enrico M Di Teodoro, Marcin Glowacki, Renée C Kraan-Korteweg, Tom A Oosterloo, Elizabeth AK Adams, Hengxing Pan, Isabella Prandoni, Sambatriniaina HA Rajohnson, Francesco Sinigaglia, Nathan J Adams, Ian Heywood, Rebecca AA Bowler, Peter W Hatfield, Jordan D Collier, Srikrishna Sekhar

Abstract:

ABSTRACT Using a sample of 67 galaxies from the MeerKAT International GigaHertz Tiered Extragalactic Exploration Survey Early Science data, we study the H i-based baryonic Tully–Fisher relation (bTFr), covering a period of ∼1 billion years (0 ≤ z ≤ 0.081). We consider the bTFr based on two different rotational velocity measures: the width of the global H i profile and Vout, measured as the outermost rotational velocity from the resolved H i rotation curves. Both relations exhibit very low intrinsic scatter orthogonal to the best-fitting relation (σ⊥ = 0.07 ± 0.01), comparable to the SPARC sample at z ≃ 0. The slopes of the relations are similar and consistent with the z ≃ 0 studies ($3.66^{+0.35}_{-0.29}$ for W50 and $3.47^{+0.37}_{-0.30}$ for Vout). We find no evidence that the bTFr has evolved over the last billion years, and all galaxies in our sample are consistent with the same relation independent of redshift and the rotational velocity measure. Our results set-up a reference for all future studies of the H i-based bTFr as a function of redshift that will be conducted with the ongoing deep SKA pathfinders surveys.

Radio spectral properties of star-forming galaxies in the MIGHTEE-COSMOS field and their impact on the far-infrared-radio correlation

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 507:256 (2021) 2643-2658

Authors:

Fangxia An, M Vaccari, Ian Smail, Mj Jarvis, Ih Whittam, Cl Hale, S Jin, Jd Collier, E Daddi, J Delhaize, B Frank, Ej Murphy, M Prescott, S Sekhar, Ar Taylor, Y Ao, K Knowles, L Marchetti, Sm Randriamampandry, Z Randriamanakoto

Abstract:

We study the radio spectral properties of 2094 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) by combining our early science data from the MeerKAT International GHz Tiered Extragalactic Exploration (MIGHTEE) survey with VLA, GMRT radio data, and rich ancillary data in the COSMOS field. These SFGs are selected at VLA 3 GHz, and their flux densities from MeerKAT 1.3 GHz and GMRT 325 MHz imaging data are extracted using the ‘superdeblending’ technique. The median radio spectral index is α3GHz1.3GHz=−0.80±0.01 without significant variation across the rest-frame frequencies ∼1.3–10 GHz, indicating radio spectra dominated by synchrotron radiation. On average, the radio spectrum at observer-frame 1.3–3 GHz slightly steepens with increasing stellar mass with a linear fitted slope of β = −0.08 ± 0.01, which could be explained by age-related synchrotron losses. Due to the sensitivity of GMRT 325 MHz data, we apply a further flux density cut at 3 GHz (⁠S3GHz≥50μJy) and obtain a sample of 166 SFGs with measured flux densities at 325 MHz, 1.3 GHz, and 3 GHz. On average, the radio spectrum of SFGs flattens at low frequency with the median spectral indices of α1.3GHz325MHz=−0.59+0.02−0.03 and α3.0GHz1.3GHz=−0.74+0.01−0.02⁠. At low frequency, our stacking analyses show that the radio spectrum also slightly steepens with increasing stellar mass. By comparing the far-infrared-radio correlations of SFGs based on different radio spectral indices, we find that adopting α3GHz1.3GHz for k-corrections will significantly underestimate the infrared-to-radio luminosity ratio (qIR) for >17 per cent of the SFGs with measured flux density at the three radio frequencies in our sample, because their radio spectra are significantly flatter at low frequency (0.33–1.3 GHz).

COALAS: I. ATCA CO(1-0) survey and luminosity function in the Spiderweb protocluster at z=2.16

Astronomy and Astrophysics EDP Sciences 652 (2021) A11

Authors:

H Dannerbauer, B Emonts, P Serra, Cdp Lagos, Ap Thomson, L Bassini, M Lehnert, James Allison, Jb Champagne, B Indermuehle, Rp Norris, N Seymour, R Shimakawa, C De Breuck, N Hatch, T Kodama, Y Koyama, P Macgregor, G Miley, R Overzier, Jm Perez-Martinez, Jm Rodriguez-Espinosa, H Roettgering, M Sanchez Portal, B Ziegler

Abstract:

We report a detailed CO(1-0) survey of a galaxy protocluster field at z = 2.16, based on 475 h of observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We constructed a large mosaic of 13 individual pointings, covering an area of 21 arcmin2 and ±6500 km s-1 range in velocity. We obtained a robust sample of 46 CO(1-0) detections spanning z = 2.09 - 2.22, constituting the largest sample of molecular gas measurements in protoclusters to date. The CO emitters show an overdensity at z = 2.12 - 2.21, suggesting a galaxy super-protocluster or a protocluster connected to large-scale filaments of ∼120 cMpc in size. We find that 90% of CO emitters have distances >0.′5-4′ to the center galaxy, indicating that small area surveys would miss the majority of gas reservoirs in similar structures. Half of the CO emitters have velocities larger than escape velocities, which appears gravitationally unbound to the cluster core. These unbound sources are barely found within the R200 radius around the center, which is consistent with a picture in which the cluster core is collapsed while outer regions are still in formation. Compared to other protoclusters, this structure contains a relatively higher number of CO emitters with relatively narrow line widths and high luminosities, indicating galaxy mergers. We used these CO emitters to place the first constraint on the CO luminosity function and molecular gas density in an overdense environment. The amplitude of the CO luminosity function is 1.6 ± 0.5 orders of magnitude higher than that observed for field galaxy samples at z ∼ 2, and one order of magnitude higher than predictions for galaxy protoclusters from semi-analytical SHARK models. We derive a high molecular gas density of 0.6 - 1.3 × 109Mpdbl cMpc-3 for this structure, which is consistent with predictions for cold gas density of massive structures from hydro-dynamical DIANOGA simulations.

MIGHTEE-HI: discovery of an H I-rich galaxy group at z = 0.044 with MeerKAT

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 506:2 (2021) 2753-2765

Authors:

Shilpa Ranchod, Roger P Deane, Anastasia Ponomareva, Tariq Blecher, Bradley S Frank, Matthew Jarvis, Natasha Maddox, Wanga Mulaudzi, Marcin Glowacki, Kelley M Hess, Madalina Tudorache, Nathan J Adams, Rebecca Bowler, Jordan D Collier, Russ Taylor, Lourdes Verdes-Montenegro

Abstract:

We present the serendipitous discovery of a galaxy group in the XMM-LSS field with MIGHTEE Early Science observations. 20 galaxies are detected in H I in this z ∼ 0.044 group, with a 3σ column density sensitivity of NHI=1.6×1020cm−2⁠. This group has not been previously identified, despite residing in a well-studied extragalactic legacy field. We present spatially resolved H I total intensity and velocity maps for each of the objects which reveal environmental influence through disturbed morphologies. The group has a dynamical mass of log10(Mdyn/M⊙)=12.32⁠, and is unusually gas-rich, with an H I-to-stellar mass ratio of log10(f∗HI)=−0.2⁠, which is 0.7 dex greater than expected. The group’s high H I content, spatial, velocity, and identified galaxy type distributions strongly suggest that it is in the early stages of its assembly. The discovery of this galaxy group is an example of the importance of mapping spatially resolved H I in a wide range of environments, including galaxy groups. This scientific goal has been dramatically enhanced by the high sensitivity, large field-of-view, and wide instantaneous bandwidth of the MeerKAT telescope.