Controlling intrinsic quantum confinement in formamidinium lead triiodide perovskite through cs substitution
ACS Nano American Chemical Society (2022)
Abstract:Lead halide perovskites are leading candidates for photovoltaic and light-emitting devices, owing to their excellent and widely tunable optoelectronic properties. Nanostructure control has been central to their development, allowing for improvements in efficiency and stability, and changes in electronic dimensionality. Recently, formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI3) has been shown to exhibit intrinsic quantum confinement effects in nominally bulk thin films, apparent through above-bandgap absorption peaks. Here, we show that such nanoscale electronic effects can be controlled through partial replacement of the FA cation with Cs. We find that Cs-cation exchange causes a weakening of quantum confinement in the perovskite, arising from changes in the bandstructure, the length scale of confinement, or the presence of δH-phase electronic barriers. We further observe photon emission from quantum-confined regions, highlighting their potential usefulness to light-emitting devices and single-photon sources. Overall, controlling this intriguing quantum phenomenon will allow for its suppression or enhancement according to need.
Solvent-free method for defect reduction and improved performance of p-i-n vapor-deposited perovskite solar cells
ACS Energy Letters American Chemical Society 7 (2022) 1903-1911
Abstract:As perovskite-based photovoltaics near commercialization, it is imperative to develop industrial-scale defect-passivation techniques. Vapor deposition is a solvent-free fabrication technique that is widely implemented in industry and can be used to fabricate metal-halide perovskite thin films. We demonstrate markably improved growth and optoelectronic properties for vapor-deposited [CH(NH2)2]0.83Cs0.17PbI3 perovskite solar cells by partially substituting PbI2 for PbCl2 as the inorganic precursor. We find the partial substitution of PbI2 for PbCl2 enhances photoluminescence lifetimes from 5.6 ns to over 100 ns, photoluminescence quantum yields by more than an order of magnitude, and charge-carrier mobility from 46 cm2/(V s) to 56 cm2/(V s). This results in improved solar-cell power conversion efficiency, from 16.4% to 19.3% for the devices employing perovskite films deposited with 20% substitution of PbI2 for PbCl2. Our method presents a scalable, dry, and solvent-free route to reducing nonradiative recombination centers and hence improving the performance of vapor-deposited metal-halide perovskite solar cells.
Optoelectronic properties of mixed iodide-bromide perovskites from first-principles computational modeling and experiment
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters American Chemical Society 13:18 (2022) 4184-4192
Abstract:Halogen mixing in lead-halide perovskites is an effective route for tuning the band gap in light emission and multijunction solar cell applications. Here we report the effect of halogen mixing on the optoelectronic properties of lead-halide perovskites from theory and experiment. We applied the virtual crystal approximation within density functional theory, the <i>GW</i> approximation, and the Bethe-Salpeter equation to calculate structural, vibrational, and optoelectronic properties for a series of mixed halide perovskites. We separately perform spectroscopic measurements of these properties and analyze the impact of halogen mixing on quasiparticle band gaps, effective masses, absorption coefficients, charge-carrier mobilities, and exciton binding energies. Our joint theoretical-experimental study demonstrates that iodide-bromide mixed-halide perovskites can be modeled as homovalent alloys, and local structural distortions do not play a significant role for the properties of these mixed species. Our study outlines a general theoretical-experimental framework for future investigations of novel chemically mixed systems.
Atomically Resolved Electrically Active Intragrain Interfaces in Perovskite Semiconductors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 144:4 (2022) 1910-1920
Abstract:Deciphering the atomic and electronic structures of interfaces is key to developing state-of-the-art perovskite semiconductors. However, conventional characterization techniques have limited previous studies mainly to grain-boundary interfaces, whereas the intragrain-interface microstructures and their electronic properties have been much less revealed. Herein using scanning transmission electron microscopy, we resolved the atomic-scale structural information on three prototypical intragrain interfaces, unraveling intriguing features clearly different from those from previous observations based on standalone films or nanomaterial samples. These intragrain interfaces include composition boundaries formed by heterogeneous ion distribution, stacking faults resulted from wrongly stacked crystal planes, and symmetrical twinning boundaries. The atomic-scale imaging of these intragrain interfaces enables us to build unequivocal models for the ab initio calculation of electronic properties. Our results suggest that these structure interfaces are generally electronically benign, whereas their dynamic interaction with point defects can still evoke detrimental effects. This work paves the way toward a more complete fundamental understanding of the microscopic structure-property-performance relationship in metal halide perovskites.
Understanding and suppressing non-radiative losses in methylammonium-free wide-bandgap perovskite solar cells
Energy and Environmental Science Royal Society of Chemistry (2021)