Local Hilbert Space Fragmentation and Out-of-Time-Ordered Crystals
ArXiv 2108.13411 (2021)
Abstract:Quantum many-body models with both Hilbert space fragmentation and non-stationarity have recently been identified. Hilbert space fragmentation does not immediately imply non-stationarity. However, strictly local dynamical symmetries directly imply non-stationarity. It is demonstrated here that these symmetries are equivalent to local fragmentation into spatially localized blocks. Using strictly local dynamical symmetries, a lower bound is given here for persistent oscillations of generalised out-of-time-ordered correlation functions (OTOCs). A novel notion of genuinely many-body continuous time translation symmetry breaking is provided by demanding non-trivial spatial modulation of the Fourier transform of the OTOC. Such non-trivial spatial-temporal dynamics stems from a perpetual backflow of quantum scrambling. Here we call systems with time-translation symmetry breaking in the OTOC, OTO crystals. This breaking cannot be realised by systems with a single effective degree of freedom (e.g. spin precession). Furthermore, the breaking is stable to all local unitary and dissipative perturbations. An XYZ Creutz ladder is presented as an example.
Complex coherent quantum many-body dynamics through dissipation
Nature Communications Springer Nature 10 (2019) 1730
Abstract:The assumption that physical systems relax to a stationary state in the long-time limit underpins statistical physics and much of our intuitive understanding of scientific phenomena. For isolated systems this follows from the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis. When an environment is present the expectation is that all of phase space is explored, eventually leading to stationarity. Notable exceptions are decoherence-free subspaces that have important implications for quantum technologies. These have been studied for systems with a few degrees of freedom only. Here we identify simple and generic conditions for dissipation to prevent a quantum many-body system from ever reaching a stationary state. We go beyond dissipative quantum state engineering approaches towards controllable long-time non-stationary dynamics typically associated with macroscopic complex systems. This coherent and oscillatory evolution constitutes a dissipative version of a quantum time-crystal. We discuss the possibility of engineering such complex dynamics with fermionic ultracold atoms in optical lattices.
Isolated Heisenberg magnet as a quantum time crystal
Physical Review B American Physical Society 102:4 (2020) 041117(R)
Abstract:We demonstrate analytically and numerically that the paradigmatic model of quantum magnetism, the Heisenberg XXZ spin chain, does not equilibrate. It constitutes an example of persistent nonstationarity in a quantum many-body system that does not rely on external driving or coupling to an environment. We trace this phenomenon to the existence of extensive dynamical symmetries. We discuss how the ensuing persistent oscillations that seemingly violate one of the most fundamental laws of physics could be observed experimentally.
Heating-Induced Long-Range η Pairing in the Hubbard Model
Physical Review Letters American Physical Society 123:3 (2019) 030603
Abstract:We show how, upon heating the spin degrees of freedom of the Hubbard model to infinite temperature, the symmetries of the system allow the creation of steady states with long-range correlations between η pairs. We induce this heating with either dissipation or periodic driving and evolve the system towards a nonequilibrium steady state, a process which melts all spin order in the system. The steady state is identical in both cases and displays distance-invariant off-diagonal η correlations. These correlations were first recognized in the superconducting eigenstates described in Yang’s seminal Letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2144 (1989)], which are a subset of our steady states. We show that our results are a consequence of symmetry properties and entirely independent of the microscopic details of the model and the heating mechanism.
Quantum many-body attractors
ArXiv 2008.11166 (2020)