Pen portraits of Presidents - Professor Raymond Hide, CBE, ScD, FRS

WEATHER (2021)

Authors:

Chris K Folland, Peter L Read

A multispecies pseudoadiabat for simulating condensable-rich exoplanet atmospheres

Planetary Science Journal 2:5 (2021)

Authors:

RJ Graham, T Lichtenberg, R Boukrouche, RT Pierrehumbert

Abstract:

Central stages in the evolution of rocky, potentially habitable planets may play out under atmospheric conditions with a large inventory of nondilute condensable components. Variations in condensate retention and accompanying changes in local lapse rate may substantially affect planetary climate and surface conditions, but there is currently no general theory to effectively describe such atmospheres. In this article, expanding on the work by Li et al., we generalize the single-component moist pseudoadiabat derivation in Pierrehumbert to allow for multiple condensing components of arbitrary diluteness and retained condensate fraction. The introduction of a freely tunable retained condensate fraction allows for a flexible, self-consistent treatment of atmospheres with nondilute condensable components. To test the pseudoadiabat’s capabilities for simulating a diverse range of climates, we apply the formula to planetary atmospheres with compositions, surface pressures, and temperatures representing important stages with condensable-rich atmospheres in the evolution of terrestrial planets: a magma ocean planet in a runaway greenhouse state; a post-impact, late-veneer-analog planet with a complex atmospheric composition; and an Archean Earth-like planet near the outer edge of the classical circumstellar habitable zone. We find that variations in the retention of multiple nondilute condensable species can significantly affect the lapse rate and in turn outgoing radiation and the spectral signatures of planetary atmospheres. The presented formulation allows for a more comprehensive treatment of the climate evolution of rocky exoplanets and early Earth analogs.

Atmospheric characterization of terrestrial exoplanets in the mid-infrared: biosignatures, habitability, and diversity

Experimental Astronomy Springer Nature (2021)

Authors:

Sp Quanz, O Absil, W Benz, X Bonfils, Jp Berger, D Defrère, E van Dishoeck, D Ehrenreich, J Fortney, A Glauser, Jl Grenfell, M Janson, S Kraus, O Krause, L Labadie, S Lacour, Y Miguel, I Ribas, S Rugheimer, F Selsis, I Snellen, A Sozzetti, Kr Stapelfeldt, S Udry, M Wyatt

Abstract:

Exoplanet science is one of the most thriving fields of modern astrophysics. A major goal is the atmospheric characterization of dozens of small, terrestrial exoplanets in order to search for signatures in their atmospheres that indicate biological activity, assess their ability to provide conditions for life as we know it, and investigate their expected atmospheric diversity. None of the currently adopted projects or missions, from ground or in space, can address these goals. In this White Paper, submitted to ESA in response to the Voyage 2050 Call, we argue that a large space-based mission designed to detect and investigate thermal emission spectra of terrestrial exoplanets in the mid-infrared wavelength range provides unique scientific potential to address these goals and surpasses the capabilities of other approaches. While NASA might be focusing on large missions that aim to detect terrestrial planets in reflected light, ESA has the opportunity to take leadership and spearhead the development of a large mid-infrared exoplanet mission within the scope of the “Voyage 2050” long-term plan establishing Europe at the forefront of exoplanet science for decades to come. Given the ambitious science goals of such a mission, additional international partners might be interested in participating and contributing to a roadmap that, in the long run, leads to a successful implementation. A new, dedicated development program funded by ESA to help reduce development and implementation cost and further push some of the required key technologies would be a first important step in this direction. Ultimately, a large mid-infrared exoplanet imaging mission will be needed to help answer one of humankind’s most fundamental questions: “How unique is our Earth?”

A multispecies pseudoadiabat for simulating condensable-rich exoplanet atmospheres

ArXiv 2108.12902 (2021)

Authors:

RJ Graham, Tim Lichtenberg, Ryan Boukrouche, Ray Pierrehumbert

Atmospheric Circulation of Hot Jupiters: Dayside-Nightside Temperature Differences. II. Comparison with Observations (vol 835, 198, 2017)

ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 917:2 (2021) ARTN 113

Authors:

Thaddeus D Komacek, Adam P Showman, Xianyu Tan