A unified pseudo-Cℓ framework

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press (OUP) (2019)

Authors:

David Alonso, Javier Sanchez, Anže Slosar

Black hole evolution: II. Spinning black holes in a supernova-driven turbulent interstellar medium

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 440:3 (2014) 2333-2346

Authors:

Y Dubois, M Volonteri, J Silk, Julien Devriendt, Adrianne Slyz

Abstract:

Supermassive black holes (BH) accrete gas from their surroundings and coalesce with companions during galaxy mergers, and both processes change the BH mass and spin. By means of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies, either idealised or embedded within the cosmic web, we explore the effects of interstellar gas dynamics and external perturbations on BH spin evolution. All these physical quantities were evolved on-the-fly in a self-consistent manner. We use a 'maximal' model to describe the turbulence induced by stellar feedback to highlight its impact on the angular momentum of the gas accreted by the BH. Periods of intense star formation are followed by phases where stellar feedback drives large-scale outflows and hot bubbles. We find that BH accretion is synchronised with star formation, as only when gas is cold and dense do both processes take place. During such periods, gas motion is dominated by consistent rotation. On the other hand, when stellar feedback becomes substantial, turbulent motion randomises gas angular momentum. However BH accretion is strongly suppressed in that case, as cold and dense gas is lacking. In our cosmological simulation, at very early times (z>6), the galactic disc has not yet settled and no preferred direction exists for the angular momentum of the accreted gas, so the BH spin remains low. As the gas settles into a disc (6>z>3), the BH spin then rapidly reaches its maximal value. At lower redshifts (z<3), even when galaxy mergers flip the direction of the angular momentum of the accreted gas, causing it to counter-rotate, the BH spin magnitude only decreases modestly and temporarily. Should this be a typical evolution scenario for BH, it potentially has dramatic consequences regarding their origin and assembly, as accretion on maximally spinning BH embedded in thin Shakura-Sunyaev disc is significantly reduced.

Black hole evolution: II. Spinning black holes in a supernova-driven turbulent interstellar medium

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Oxford University Press 440:3 (2014) 2333-2346

Authors:

Y Dubois, M Volonteri, J Silk, Julien Devriendt, Adrianne Slyz

Abstract:

Supermassive black holes (BH) accrete gas from their surroundings and coalesce with companions during galaxy mergers, and both processes change the BH mass and spin. By means of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies, either idealised or embedded within the cosmic web, we explore the effects of interstellar gas dynamics and external perturbations on BH spin evolution. All these physical quantities were evolved on-the-fly in a self-consistent manner. We use a 'maximal' model to describe the turbulence induced by stellar feedback to highlight its impact on the angular momentum of the gas accreted by the BH. Periods of intense star formation are followed by phases where stellar feedback drives large-scale outflows and hot bubbles. We find that BH accretion is synchronised with star formation, as only when gas is cold and dense do both processes take place. During such periods, gas motion is dominated by consistent rotation. On the other hand, when stellar feedback becomes substantial, turbulent motion randomises gas angular momentum. However BH accretion is strongly suppressed in that case, as cold and dense gas is lacking. In our cosmological simulation, at very early times (z>6), the galactic disc has not yet settled and no preferred direction exists for the angular momentum of the accreted gas, so the BH spin remains low. As the gas settles into a disc (6>z>3), the BH spin then rapidly reaches its maximal value. At lower redshifts (z<3), even when galaxy mergers flip the direction of the angular momentum of the accreted gas, causing it to counter-rotate, the BH spin magnitude only decreases modestly and temporarily. Should this be a typical evolution scenario for BH, it potentially has dramatic consequences regarding their origin and assembly, as accretion on maximally spinning BH embedded in thin Shakura-Sunyaev disc is significantly reduced.

LtU-ILI: An All-in-One Framework for Implicit Inference in Astrophysics and Cosmology

The Open Journal of Astrophysics Maynooth University 7 (2024)

Authors:

Matthew Ho, Deaglan J Bartlett, Nicolas Chartier, Carolina Cuesta-Lazaro, Simon Ding, Axel Lapel, Pablo Lemos, Christopher C Lovell, T Lucas Makinen, Chirag Modi, Viraj Pandya, Shivam Pandey, Lucia A Perez, Benjamin Wandelt, Greg L Bryan

Abstract:

This paper presents the Learning the Universe Implicit Likelihood Inference (LtU-ILI) pipeline, a codebase for rapid, user-friendly, and cutting-edge machine learning (ML) inference in astrophysics and cosmology. The pipeline includes software for implementing various neural architectures, training schema, priors, and density estimators in a manner easily adaptable to any research workflow. It includes comprehensive validation metrics to assess posterior estimate coverage, enhancing the reliability of inferred results. Additionally, the pipeline is easily parallelizable, designed for efficient exploration of modeling hyperparameters. To demonstrate its capabilities, we present real applications across a range of astrophysics and cosmology problems, such as: estimating galaxy cluster masses from X-ray photometry; inferring cosmology from matter power spectra and halo point clouds; characterising progenitors in gravitational wave signals; capturing physical dust parameters from galaxy colors and luminosities; and establishing properties of semi-analytic models of galaxy formation. We also include exhaustive benchmarking and comparisons of all implemented methods as well as discussions about the challenges and pitfalls of ML inference in astronomical sciences. All code and examples are made publicly available at https://github.com/maho3/ltu-ili.

Cosmic evolution of black hole spin and galaxy orientations: clues from the NewHorizon and Galactica simulations

Astronomy and Astrophysics EDP Sciences 686 (2024) A233

Authors:

Sebastien Peirani, Yasushi Suto, Ricarda S Beckmann, Marta Volonteri, Yen-Ting Lin, Yohan Dubois, Sukyoung K Yi, Christophe Pichon, Katarina Kraljic, Minjung Park, Julien Devriendt, San Han, Wei-Huai Chen

Abstract:

Black holes (BHs) are ubiquitous components of the center of most galaxies. In addition to their mass, the BH spin, through its amplitude and orientation, is a key factor in the galaxy formation process, as it controls the radiative efficiency of the accretion disk and relativistic jets. Using the recent cosmological high-resolution zoom-in simulations, NewHorizon and Galactica, in which the evolution of the BH spin is followed on the fly, we have tracked the cosmic history of a hundred BHs with a mass greater than 2×104M⊙. For each of them, we have studied the variations of the three-dimensional angle (Ψ) subtended between the BH spins and the angular momentum vectors of their host galaxies (estimated from the stellar component). The analysis of the individual evolution of the most massive BHs suggests that they are generally passing by three different regimes. First, for a short period after their birth, low-mass BHs (MBH <3×104M⊙) are rapidly spun up by gas accretion and their spin tends to be aligned with their host galaxy spin. Then follows a second phase in which the accretion of gas onto low-mass BHs (MBH ≲105M⊙) is quite chaotic and inefficient, reflecting the complex and disturbed morphologies of forming proto-galaxies at high redshifts. The variations of Ψ are rather erratic during this phase and are mainly driven by the rapid changes of the direction of the galaxy angular momentum. Then, in a third and long phase, BHs are generally well settled in the center of galaxies around which the gas accretion becomes much more coherent (MBH >105 M⊙). In this case, the BH spins tend to be well aligned with the angular momentum of their host galaxy and this configuration is generally stable even though BH merger episodes can temporally induce misalignment. We even find a few cases of BH-galaxy spin anti-alignment that lasts for a long time in which the gas component is counter-rotating with respect to the stellar component. We have also derived the distributions of cos(Ψ) at different redshifts and found that BHs and galaxy spins are generally aligned. Our analysis suggests that the fraction of BH-galaxy pairs with low Ψ values reaches maximum at z∼4-3, and then decreases until z∼1.5 due to the high BH-merger rate. Afterward, it remains almost constant probably due to the fact that BH mergers becomes rare, except for a slight increase at late times. Finally, based on a Monte Carlo method, we also predict statistics for the 2-d projected spin-orbit angles λ. In particular, the distribution of λ traces the alignment tendency well in the three-dimensional analysis. Such predictions provide an interesting background for future observational analyses.