Photovoltaic performance of FAPbI3 perovskite is hampered by intrinsic quantum confinement
Formamidinium lead trioiodide (FAPbI3) is a promising perovskite for single-junction solar cells. However, FAPbI3 is metastable at room temperature and can cause intrinsic quantum confinement effects apparent through a series of above-bandgap absorption peaks. Here, we explore three common solution-based film-fabrication methods, neat N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)–dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent, DMF-DMSO with methylammonium chloride, and a sequential deposition approach. The latter two offer enhanced nucleation and crystallization control and suppress such quantum confinement effects. We show that elimination of these absorption features yields increased power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) and short-circuit currents, suggesting that quantum confinement hinders charge extraction. A meta-analysis of literature reports, covering 244 articles and 825 photovoltaic devices incorporating FAPbI3 films corroborates our findings, indicating that PCEs rarely exceed a 20% threshold when such absorption features are present. Accordingly, ensuring the absence of these absorption features should be the first assessment when designing fabrication approaches for high-efficiency FAPbI3 solar cells.
Thermally stable perovskite solar cells by all-vacuum deposition
Vacuum deposition is a solvent-free method suitable for growing thin films of metal halide perovskite (MHP) semiconductors. However, most reports of high-efficiency solar cells based on such vacuum-deposited MHP films incorporate solution-processed hole transport layers (HTLs), thereby complicating prospects of industrial upscaling and potentially affecting the overall device stability. In this work, we investigate organometallic copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) as alternative, low-cost, and durable HTLs in all-vacuum-deposited solvent-free formamidinium-cesium lead triodide [CH(NH2)2]0.83Cs0.17PbI3 (FACsPbI3) perovskite solar cells. We elucidate that the CuPc HTL, when employed in an “inverted” p–i–n solar cell configuration, attains a solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiency of up to 13.9%. Importantly, unencapsulated devices as large as 1 cm2 exhibited excellent long-term stability, demonstrating no observable degradation in efficiency after more than 5000 h in storage and 3700 h under 85 °C thermal stressing in N2 atmosphere.